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      Molecular Detection of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Species Isolated from Broiler Farm in Bangladesh

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          Abstract

          Multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella are a leading cause of foodborne diseases and serious human health concerns worldwide. In this study we detected MDR Salmonella in broiler chicken along with the resistance genes and class 1 integron gene intl1. A total of 100 samples were collected from broiler farms comprising 50 cloacal swabs, 35 litter and 15 feed samples. Overall prevalence of Salmonella was 35% with the highest detected in cloacal swabs. Among the Salmonella, 30 isolates were confirmed as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium using molecular methods of PCR. Disk diffusion susceptibility test revealed that all the Salmonella were classified as MDR with the highest resistance to tetracycline (97.14%), chloramphenicol (94.28%), ampicillin (82.85%) and streptomycin (77.14%). The most prevalent resistance genotypes were tetA (97.14%), floR (94.28%), bla TEM-1 (82.85%) and aadA1 (77.14%). In addition, among the MDR Salmonella, 20% were positive for class 1 integron gene ( intl1). As far as we know, this is the first study describing the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in MDR Salmonella from broiler farms in Bangladesh. In addition to tetA, floR, bla TEM-1 , aadA1 and intl1 were also detected in the isolated MDR Salmonella. The detection of MDR Salmonella in broiler chicken carrying intl1 is of serious public health concern because of their zoonotic nature and possibilities to enter into the food chain.

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          The antibiotic resistome: the nexus of chemical and genetic diversity.

          Over the millennia, microorganisms have evolved evasion strategies to overcome a myriad of chemical and environmental challenges, including antimicrobial drugs. Even before the first clinical use of antibiotics more than 60 years ago, resistant organisms had been isolated. Moreover, the potential problem of the widespread distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria was recognized by scientists and healthcare specialists from the initial use of these drugs. Why is resistance inevitable and where does it come from? Understanding the molecular diversity that underlies resistance will inform our use of these drugs and guide efforts to develop new efficacious antibiotics.
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            Mobile Genetic Elements Associated with Antimicrobial Resistance

            SUMMARY Strains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, particularly those that are multiresistant, are an increasing major health care problem around the world. It is now abundantly clear that both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are able to meet the evolutionary challenge of combating antimicrobial chemotherapy, often by acquiring preexisting resistance determinants from the bacterial gene pool. This is achieved through the concerted activities of mobile genetic elements able to move within or between DNA molecules, which include insertion sequences, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and those that are able to transfer between bacterial cells, such as plasmids and integrative conjugative elements. Together these elements play a central role in facilitating horizontal genetic exchange and therefore promote the acquisition and spread of resistance genes. This review aims to outline the characteristics of the major types of mobile genetic elements involved in acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, focusing on the so-called ESKAPEE group of organisms ( Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Acinetobacter baumannii , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Enterobacter spp., and Escherichia coli ), which have become the most problematic hospital pathogens.
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              Antimicrobial resistance and management of invasive Salmonella disease.

              Invasive Salmonella infections (typhoidal and non-typhoidal) cause a huge burden of illness estimated at nearly 3.4 million cases and over 600,000 deaths annually especially in resource-limited settings. Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are particularly important in immunosuppressed populations especially in sub-Saharan Africa, causing a mortality of 20-30% in vulnerable children below 5 years of age. In these settings, where routine surveillance for antimicrobial resistance is rare or non-existent, reports of 50-75% multidrug resistance (MDR) in NTS are common, including strains of NTS also resistant to flouroquinolones and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Typhoid (enteric) fever caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia and Africa. Currently over a third of isolates in many endemic areas are MDR, and diminished susceptibility or resistance to fluoroquinolones, the drugs of choice for MDR cases over the last decade is an increasing problem. The situation is particularly worrying in resource-limited settings where the few remaining effective antimicrobials are either unavailable or altogether too expensive to be afforded by either the general public or by public health services. Although the prudent use of effective antimicrobials, improved hygiene and sanitation and the discovery of new antimicrobial agents may offer hope for the management of invasive salmonella infections, it is essential to consider other interventions including the wider use of WHO recommended typhoid vaccines and the acceleration of trials for novel iNTS vaccines. The main objective of this review is to describe existing data on the prevalence and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant invasive Salmonella infections and how this affects the management of these infections, especially in endemic developing countries.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pathogens
                Pathogens
                pathogens
                Pathogens
                MDPI
                2076-0817
                09 March 2020
                March 2020
                : 9
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh; shanzidashanu20@ 123456gmail.com (S.B.A.); muketvet@ 123456gmail.com (M.M.); rafia.karim06@ 123456gmail.com (R.A.); hasan.48603@ 123456bau.edu.bd (M.H.); soburvetbau@ 123456gmail.com (A.S.); nazir@ 123456bau.edu.bd (K.N.H.N.); tanvirahman@ 123456bau.edu.bd (T.R.)
                [2 ]University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; anoreddin@ 123456sharjah.ac.ae
                [3 ]Infectious Diseases and Anti-Infective Therapy Research Group, Sharjah Medical Research Institute and College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE
                [4 ]Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75185, Sweden
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: elzow005@ 123456gmail.com (M.E.E.Z.); marzia_micro@ 123456yahoo.com (M.R.)
                Article
                pathogens-09-00201
                10.3390/pathogens9030201
                7157442
                32182918
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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