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      Anemia and Diabetes

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          Abstract

          World Health Organization statistics identify 150 million people with diabetes mellitus worldwide and suggest that this figure may double by 2025. In countries with a western lifestyle, the number of patients admitted for renal replacement therapy with diabetes as a co-morbid condition has increased significantly up to three to four times in a period of 10 years. Diabetes and renal failure are thus tightly linked diseases, and so is anemia. However, whether anemia may be worsened and/or directly, at least in part, caused by diabetes is not clearly elucidated yet. In this article, we review the prevalence, pathophysiology and consequences of anemia in diabetic patients.

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          Most cited references 28

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          End-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes: A medical catastrophe of worldwide dimensions.

          The incidence of patients with end-stage renal failure and diabetes mellitus type 2 as a comorbid condition has increased progressively in the past decades, first in the United States and Japan, but subsequently in all countries with a western lifestyle. Although there are explanations for this increase, the major factor is presumably diminishing mortality from hypertension and cardiovascular causes, so that patients survive long enough to develop nephropathy and end-stage renal failure. This review summarizes the striking differences between countries against the background of a similar tendency of an increasing incidence in all countries. Survival on renal replacement therapy continues to be substantially worse for patients with type 2 diabetes. A major reason for this observation is that patients enter renal replacement programs with cardiovascular morbidity acquired in the preterminal phase of renal failure. It is argued that the challenge for the future will be better patient management in earlier phases of diabetic nephropathy to attenuate or prevent progression, as well as cardiovascular complications.
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            Left ventricular mass index increase in early renal disease: Impact of decline in hemoglobin

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              Unrecognized anemia in patients with diabetes: a cross-sectional survey.

              Anemia is common in diabetes, potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. This study aims to establish the prevalence and independent predictors of anemia in a cross-sectional survey of 820 patients with diabetes in long-term follow-up in a single clinic. A full blood count was obtained in addition to routine blood and urine test results for all patients over a 2-year period to encompass all patterns of review. Predictors of the most recent Hb concentration and anemia were identified using multiple and logistic regression analysis. A total of 190 patients (23%) had unrecognized anemia (Hb 2 times (odds ratio [OR] 2.3) and macroalbuminuric patients >10 times (OR 10.1) as likely to have anemia than normoalbuminuric patients with preserved renal function (GFR >80 ml/min). Anemia is a common accompaniment to diabetes, particularly in those with albuminuria or reduced renal function. Additional factors present in diabetes may contribute to the development of increased risk for anemia in patients with diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2004
                October 2004
                01 December 2004
                : 24
                : 5
                : 522-526
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology and bDiabetology, Hôpital Pitié, Salpêtrière, Paris, France
                Article
                81058 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:522–526
                10.1159/000081058
                15452405
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 42, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/81058
                Categories
                In-Depth Topic Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Renal failure, Erythropoietin, Anemia, Diabetes, Hemoglobin

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