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      Up-regulation of plasma membrane-associated ganglioside sialidase (Neu3) in human colon cancer and its involvement in apoptosis suppression

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          Abstract

          Human plasma membrane-associated sialidase (Neu3) is unique in specifically hydrolyzing gangliosides, thought to participate in cell differentiation and transmembrane signaling, thereby playing crucial roles in the regulation of cell surface functions. We have discovered levels of mRNA for this sialidase to be increased in restricted cases of human colon cancer by 3- to 100-fold compared with adjacent nontumor mucosa (n = 32), associated with significant elevation in sialidase activity in tumors (n = 50). In situ hybridization showed the sialidase expression in epithelial elements of adenocarcinomas. In cultured human colon cancer cells, the sialidase level was down-regulated in the process of differentiation and apoptosis induced by sodium butyrate, whereas lysosomal sialidase (Neu1) was up-regulated. Transfection of the sialidase gene into colon cancer cells inhibited apoptosis and was accompanied by increased Bcl-2 and decreased caspase expression. Colon cancer exhibited a marked accumulation of lactosylceramide, a possible sialidase product, and addition of the glycolipid to the culture reduced apoptotic cells during sodium butyrate treatment. These results indicate that high expression of the sialidase in cancer cells leads to protection against programmed cell death, probably modulation of gangliosides. This finding provides a possible sialidase target for diagnosis and therapy of colon cancer.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Beta 1-6 branching of Asn-linked oligosaccharides is directly associated with metastasis.

          Neoplastic transformation has been associated with a variety of structural changes in cell surface carbohydrates, most notably increased sialylation and beta 1-6-linked branching of complex-type asparagine (Asn)-linked oligosaccharides (that is, -GlcNAc beta 1-6Man alpha 1-6Man beta 1-). However, little is known about the relevant glycoproteins or how these transformation-related changes in oligosaccharide biosynthesis may affect the malignant phenotype. Here it is reported that a cell surface glycoprotein, gp 130, is a major target of increased beta 1-6-linked branching and that the expression of these oligosaccharide structures is directly related to the metastatic potential of the cells. Glycosylation mutants of a metastatic tumor cell line were selected that are deficient in both beta 1-6 GlcNAc transferase V activity and metastatic potential in situ. Moreover, induction of increased beta 1-6 branching in clones of a nonmetastatic murine mammary carcinoma correlated strongly with acquisition of metastatic potential. The results indicate that increased beta 1-6-linked branching of complex-type oligosaccharides on gp 130 may be an important feature of tumor progression related to increased metastatic potential.
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            Ecdysone-inducible gene expression in mammalian cells and transgenic mice.

            During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, a cascade of morphological changes is triggered by the steroid hormone 20-OH ecdysone via the ecdysone receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In this report, we have transferred insect hormone responsiveness to mammalian cells by the stable expression of a modified ecdysone receptor that regulates an optimized ecdysone responsive promoter. Inductions reaching 4 orders of magnitude have been achieved upon treatment with hormone. Transgenic mice expressing the modified ecdysone receptor can activate an integrated ecdysone responsive promoter upon administration of hormone. A comparison of tetracycline-based and ecdysone-based inducible systems reveals the ecdysone regulatory system exhibits lower basal activity and higher inducibility. Since ecdysone administration has no apparent effect on mammals, its use for regulating genes should be excellent for transient inducible expression of any gene in transgenic mice and for gene therapy.
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              Characterization of human lysosomal neuraminidase defines the molecular basis of the metabolic storage disorder sialidosis.

              Neuraminidases (sialidases) have an essential role in the removal of terminal sialic acid residues from sialoglycoconjugates and are distributed widely in nature. The human lysosomal enzyme occurs in complex with beta-galactosidase and protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA), and is deficient in two genetic disorders: sialidosis, caused by a structural defect in the neuraminidase gene, and galactosialidosis, in which the loss of neuraminidase activity is secondary to a deficiency of PPCA. We identified a full-length cDNA clone in the dbEST data base, of which the predicted amino acid sequence has extensive homology to other mammalian and bacterial neuraminidases, including the F(Y)RIP domain and "Asp-boxes." In situ hybridization localized the human neuraminidase gene to chromosome band 6p21, a region known to contain the HLA locus. Transient expression of the cDNA in deficient human fibroblasts showed that the enzyme is compartmentalized in lysosomes and restored neuraminidase activity in a PPCA-dependent manner. The authenticity of the cDNA was verified by the identification of three independent mutations in the open reading frame of the mRNA from clinically distinct sialidosis patients. Coexpression of the mutant cDNAs with PPCA failed to generate neuraminidase activity, confirming the inactivating effect of the mutations. These results establish the molecular basis of sialidosis in these patients, and clearly identify the cDNA-encoded protein as lysosomal neuraminidase.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                August 06 2002
                July 29 2002
                August 06 2002
                : 99
                : 16
                : 10718-10723
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.152597199
                125023
                12149448
                © 2002
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