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      The Duality of Human Nature : Coercion and Prosociality in Youths’ Hierarchy Ascension and Social Success

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      Current Directions in Psychological Science
      SAGE Publications

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          Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees.

          Human beings routinely help others to achieve their goals, even when the helper receives no immediate benefit and the person helped is a stranger. Such altruistic behaviors (toward non-kin) are extremely rare evolutionarily, with some theorists even proposing that they are uniquely human. Here we show that human children as young as 18 months of age (prelinguistic or just-linguistic) quite readily help others to achieve their goals in a variety of different situations. This requires both an understanding of others' goals and an altruistic motivation to help. In addition, we demonstrate similar though less robust skills and motivations in three young chimpanzees.
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            Social withdrawal in childhood.

            Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood.
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              The Ontogenesis of Social Dominance: A Strategy-Based Evolutionary Perspective

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Current Directions in Psychological Science
                Curr Dir Psychol Sci
                SAGE Publications
                0963-7214
                1467-8721
                December 16 2014
                December 2014
                December 16 2014
                December 2014
                : 23
                : 6
                : 433-438
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Texas Tech University
                Article
                10.1177/0963721414548417
                6ee484f6-02c2-4079-a660-d9158a61053d
                © 2014

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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