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      Significant improvement of bone mineral density by denosumab treatment in Japanese osteoporotic patients following breast cancer treatment

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          Abstract

          Background

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of denosumab in patients with osteoporosis (OP) and non-metastatic breast cancer following treatment of 1) surgery, 2) surgery and aromatase inhibitors, and 3) surgery, aromatase inhibitors, and anti-cancer agents, compared with those in primary OP patients.

          Patients and methods

          In this retrospective 24-month study, patients were divided into the primary OP group (34 cases) or OP receiving breast cancer treatment group (breast cancer group; 17 cases). We measured serum calcium, whole parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25OH 2D 3, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b), and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD) and bilateral total hips (H-BMD) for 24 months.

          Results

          The percent changes of serum calcium in the breast cancer group were significantly lower than those in the primary OP group at 1 week, 1 and 12 months. The percent changes of whole PTH in the primary OP group were significantly lower than those in the breast cancer group at 2 and 4 months. Significant differences were found between the groups at 18 months (−34.5% in the primary OP group and −52.6% in the breast cancer group, respectively) for the percent changes of BAP. Significant differences were found between the groups at 12, 18, and 24 months (−39.7% in the primary OP group and −64.0% in the breast cancer group at 24 months, respectively) for the percent changes of TRACP-5b. The percent changes of L-BMD and H-BMD were significantly increased at 12, 18, and 24 months in both the primary OP group (7.0% and 4.7% at 24 months, respectively) and breast cancer group (8.0% and 5.4% at 24 months, respectively), compared with pre-treatment levels. Significant differences were not found between the groups for the percent changes of L-BMD and H-BMD.

          Conclusion

          Denosumab significantly increased L-BMD and H-BMD to comparable degrees in both groups; therefore, it represents a good therapeutic option for OP receiving breast cancer treatment as well as primary OP. Also, vitamin D supplementation is required due to the potential hypocalcemia, and estrogen may be responsible for the decrease of serum calcium in the breast cancer patients.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Randomized trial of denosumab in patients receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for nonmetastatic breast cancer.

          Adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy is well established in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, but such therapy is complicated by accelerated bone loss and increased fracture risk. We investigated the ability of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand, to protect against aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss. Eligible women with hormone receptor-positive nonmetastatic breast cancer treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy were stratified by duration of aromatase inhibitor therapy ( 6 months), received supplemental calcium and vitamin D, and were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 125) or subcutaneous denosumab 60 mg (n = 127) every 6 months. At enrollment, all patients were required to have evidence of low bone mass, excluding osteoporosis. The primary end point was percentage change from baseline at month 12 in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). At 12 and 24 months, lumbar spine BMD increased by 5.5% and 7.6%, respectively, in the denosumab group versus placebo (P < .0001 at both time points). Increases were observed as early as 1 month and were not influenced by duration of aromatase inhibitor therapy. Increases in BMD were also observed at the total hip, total body, femoral neck, and the predominantly cortical one-third radius. Bone turnover markers decreased with denosumab treatment. Overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) was similar between treatment groups. In women with nonmetastatic breast cancer and low bone mass who were receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy, twice-yearly administration of denosumab led to significant increases in BMD over 24 months at trabecular and cortical bone, with overall AE rates similar to those of placebo.
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            Effect of surgical menopause and estrogen replacement on cytokine release from human blood mononuclear cells.

            To determine whether mononuclear cell secretory products contribute to the changes in bone turnover that characterize the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, we evaluated the effects of oophorectomy and subsequent estrogen replacement on the spontaneous secretion of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and on the phytohemagglutinin A-induced secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In 15 healthy premenopausal women who underwent oophorectomy, increases in GM-CSF activity were observed as early as 1 week after surgery, whereas elevations in IL-1 and TNF-alpha and in hydroxyproline/creatinine and calcium/creatinine ratios, two urinary indices of bone resorption, were detectable 2 weeks after the surgical procedure. Six of the oophorectomized women received no estrogen therapy after surgery and in these subjects hydroxyproline/creatinine and calcium/creatinine ratios plateaued 6 weeks postoperatively, and all three cytokines reached the highest levels 8 weeks after oophorectomy, when the study ended. In the remaining 9 women, who were started on estrogen replacement therapy 4 weeks after oophorectomy, decreases in the indices of bone resorption paralleled decreases in the secretion of the cytokines, with lower levels detected after 2 weeks of therapy. In the women who did not receive estrogen therapy, circulating osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, increased beyond preoperative levels 8 weeks after oophorectomy, whereas in the estrogen-treated subjects osteocalcin remained unchanged in the entire study period. In 9 female controls who underwent simple hysterectomy, cytokine release and biochemical indices of bone turnover did not change after surgery. These data indicate that changes in estrogen status in vivo are associated with the secretion of mononuclear cell immune factors in vitro and suggest that alterations in the local production of bone-acting cytokines may underlie changes in bone turnover caused by surgically induced menopause and estrogen replacement.
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              Management of Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Bone Loss (AIBL) in postmenopausal women with hormone sensitive breast cancer: Joint position statement of the IOF, CABS, ECTS, IEG, ESCEO IMS, and SIOG

              Background Several guidelines have been reported for bone-directed treatment in women with early breast cancer (EBC) for averting fractures, particularly during aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. Recently, a number of studies on additional fracture related risk factors, new treatment options as well as real world studies demonstrating a much higher fracture rate than suggested by randomized clinical controlled trials (RCTs). Therefore, this updated algorithm was developed to better assess fracture risk and direct treatment as a position statement of several interdisciplinary cancer and bone societies involved in the management of AI-associated bone loss (AIBL). Patients and methods A systematic literature review identified recent advances in the management of AIBL. Results with individual agents were assessed based on trial design, size, follow-up, and safety. Results Several fracture related risk factors in patients with EBC were identified. Although, the FRAX algorithm includes fracture risk factors (RF) in addition to BMD, it does not seem to adequately address the effects of AIBL. Several antiresorptive agents can prevent and treat AIBL. However, concerns regarding compliance and long-term safety remain. Overall, the evidence for fracture prevention is strongest for denosumab 60 mg s.c. every 6 months. Additionally, recent studies as well as an individual patient data meta-analysis of all available randomized trial data support additional anticancer benefits from adjuvant bisphosphonate treatment in postmenopausal women with a 34% relative risk reduction in bone metastasis and 17% relative risk decrease in breast cancer mortality that needs to be taken into account when advising on management of AIBL. Conclusions In all patients initiating AI treatment, fracture risk should be assessed and recommendation with regard to exercise and calcium/vitamin D supplementation given. Bone-directed therapy should be given to all patients with a T-score −1.5 SD and no risk factors should be managed based on BMD loss during the first year and the local guidelines for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Compliance should be regularly assessed as well as BMD on treatment after 12 - 24 months. Furthermore, because of the decreased incidence of bone recurrence and breast cancer specific mortality, adjuvant bisphosphonates are recommended for all postmenopausal women at significant risk of disease recurrence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                14 March 2018
                : 14
                : 543-549
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto
                [2 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane
                [3 ]Center for Osteoporosis and Spinal Disorders, Kamimura Orthopaedic Clinic, Matsumoto
                [4 ]Department of Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane
                [5 ]Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yukio Nakamura, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan, Tel +81 26 337 2659, Fax +81 26 335 8844, Email yxn14@ 123456aol.jp
                Article
                tcrm-14-543
                10.2147/TCRM.S156466
                5857149
                © 2018 Nakamura et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                osteoporosis, bone mineral density, denosumab, breast cancer, bone turnover markers

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