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      Pathophysiological and behavioral effects of systemic inflammation in aged and diseased rodents with relevance to delirium: A systematic review.

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          Abstract

          Delirium is a frequent outcome for aged and demented patients that suffer a systemic inflammatory insult. Animal models that reconstruct these etiological processes have potential to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of delirium. Therefore, we systematically reviewed animal studies in which systemic inflammation was superimposed on aged or diseased animal models. In total, 77 studies were identified. Aged animals were challenged with a bacterial endotoxin in 29 studies, 25 studies superimposed surgery on aged animals, and in 6 studies a bacterial infection, Escherichia coli (E. coli), was used. Diseased animals were challenged with a bacterial endotoxin in 15 studies, two studies examined effects of the cytokine IL-1β, and one study used polyinosinic:polycytidilic acid (poly I:C). This systematic review analyzed the impact of systemic inflammation on the production of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators in peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and on the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, concomitant behavioral and cognitive symptoms were also evaluated. Finally, outcomes of behavioral and cognitive tests from animal studies were compared to features and symptoms present in delirious patients.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Brain Behav. Immun.
          Brain, behavior, and immunity
          Elsevier BV
          1090-2139
          0889-1591
          May 2017
          : 62
          Affiliations
          [1 ] University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center for Geriatric Medicine, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: l.schreuder@umcg.nl.
          [2 ] Department of Neuroscience, Section Medical Physiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: b.j.l.eggen@umcg.nl.
          [3 ] Department of Neuroscience, Section Medical Physiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Section of Molecular Psychiatry, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address: Knut.Biber@uniklinik-freiburg.de.
          [4 ] Department of Neurobiology, GELIFES, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: r.g.schoemaker@umcg.nl.
          [5 ] Department of Neuroscience, Section Medical Physiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: j.d.laman@umcg.nl.
          [6 ] University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center for Geriatric Medicine, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: s.e.j.a.de.rooij@umcg.nl.
          Article
          S0889-1591(17)30010-7
          10.1016/j.bbi.2017.01.010
          28088641

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