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      The 10-Year Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin for Diabetes Prevention : An intent-to-treat analysis of the DPP/DPPOS

      research-article

      The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group

      Diabetes Care

      American Diabetes Association

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) demonstrated that either intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin could prevent type 2 diabetes in high-risk adults for at least 10 years after randomization. We report the 10-year within-trial cost-effectiveness of the interventions.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

          Data on resource utilization, cost, and quality of life were collected prospectively. Economic analyses were performed from health system and societal perspectives.

          RESULTS

          Over 10 years, the cumulative, undiscounted per capita direct medical costs of the interventions, as implemented during the DPP, were greater for lifestyle ($4,601) than metformin ($2,300) or placebo ($769). The cumulative direct medical costs of care outside the DPP/DPPOS were least for lifestyle ($24,563 lifestyle vs. $25,616 metformin vs. $27,468 placebo). The cumulative, combined total direct medical costs were greatest for lifestyle and least for metformin ($29,164 lifestyle vs. $27,915 metformin vs. $28,236 placebo). The cumulative quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued over 10 years were greater for lifestyle (6.81) than metformin (6.69) or placebo (6.67). When costs and outcomes were discounted at 3%, lifestyle cost $10,037 per QALY, and metformin had slightly lower costs and nearly the same QALYs as placebo.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Over 10 years, from a payer perspective, lifestyle was cost-effective and metformin was marginally cost-saving compared with placebo. Investment in lifestyle and metformin interventions for diabetes prevention in high-risk adults provides good value for the money spent.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study.

          Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have a high risk of developing NIDDM. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diet and exercise interventions in those with IGT may delay the development of NIDDM, i.e., reduce the incidence of NIDDM, and thereby reduce the overall incidence of diabetic complications, such as cardiovascular, renal, and retinal disease, and the excess mortality attributable to these complications. In 1986, 110,660 men and women from 33 health care clinics in the city of Da Qing, China, were screened for IGT and NIDDM. Of these individuals, 577 were classified (using World Health Organization criteria) as having IGT. Subjects were randomized by clinic into a clinical trial, either to a control group or to one of three active treatment groups: diet only, exercise only, or diet plus exercise. Follow-up evaluation examinations were conducted at 2-year intervals over a 6-year period to identify subjects who developed NIDDM. Cox's proportional hazard analysis was used to determine if the incidence of NIDDM varied by treatment assignment. The cumulative incidence of diabetes at 6 years was 67.7% (95% CI, 59.8-75.2) in the control group compared with 43.8% (95% CI, 35.5-52.3) in the diet group, 41.1% (95% CI, 33.4-49.4) in the exercise group, and 46.0% (95% CI, 37.3-54.7) in the diet-plus-exercise group (P or = 25 kg/m2). In a proportional hazards analysis adjusted for differences in baseline BMI and fasting glucose, the diet, exercise, and diet-plus-exercise interventions were associated with 31% (P < 0.03), 46% (P < 0.0005), and 42% (P < 0.005) reductions in risk of developing diabetes, respectively. Diet and/or exercise interventions led to a significant decrease in the incidence of diabetes over a 6-year period among those with IGT.
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            Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. In 2007.

              (2008)
            The prevalence of diabetes continues to grow, with the number of people in the U.S. with diagnosed diabetes now reaching 17.5 million. The objectives of this study are to quantify the economic burden of diabetes caused by increased health resource use and lost productivity, and to provide a detailed breakdown of the costs attributed to diabetes. This study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population in 2007 with diabetes prevalence rates and other epidemiological data, health care costs, and economic data into a Cost of Diabetes Model. Health resource use and associated medical costs are analyzed by age, sex, type of medical condition, and health resource category. Data sources include national surveys and claims databases, as well as a proprietary database that contains annual medical claims for 16.3 million people in 2006. The total estimated cost of diabetes in 2007 is $174 billion, including $116 billion in excess medical expenditures and $58 billion in reduced national productivity. Medical costs attributed to diabetes include $27 billion for care to directly treat diabetes, $58 billion to treat the portion of diabetes-related chronic complications that are attributed to diabetes, and $31 billon in excess general medical costs. The largest components of medical expenditures attributed to diabetes are hospital inpatient care (50% of total cost), diabetes medication and supplies (12%), retail prescriptions to treat complications of diabetes (11%), and physician office visits (9%). People with diagnosed diabetes incur average expenditures of $11,744 per year, of which $6,649 is attributed to diabetes. People with diagnosed diabetes, on average, have medical expenditures that are approximately 2.3 times higher than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. For the cost categories analyzed, approximately $1 in $5 health care dollars in the U.S. is spent caring for someone with diagnosed diabetes, while approximately $1 in $10 health care dollars is attributed to diabetes. Indirect costs include increased absenteeism ($2.6 billion) and reduced productivity while at work ($20.0 billion) for the employed population, reduced productivity for those not in the labor force ($0.8 billion), unemployment from disease-related disability ($7.9 billion), and lost productive capacity due to early mortality ($26.9 billion). The actual national burden of diabetes is likely to exceed the $174 billion estimate because it omits the social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering, care provided by nonpaid caregivers, excess medical costs associated with undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes-attributed costs for health care expenditures categories omitted from this study. Omitted from this analysis are expenditure categories such as health care system administrative costs, over-the-counter medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development. The burden of diabetes is imposed on all sectors of society-higher insurance premiums paid by employees and employers, reduced earnings through productivity loss, and reduced overall quality of life for people with diabetes and their families and friends.
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              Within-trial cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention or metformin for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes.

                (2003)
              The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated that intensive lifestyle and metformin interventions reduced the incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with a placebo intervention. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the lifestyle and metformin interventions relative to the placebo intervention. Analyses were performed from a health system perspective that considered direct medical costs only and a societal perspective that considered direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs, and indirect costs. Analyses were performed with the interventions as implemented in the DPP and as they might be implemented in clinical practice. The lifestyle and metformin interventions required more resources than the placebo intervention from a health system perspective, and over 3 years they cost approximately US dollars 2250 more per participant. As implemented in the DPP and from a societal perspective, the lifestyle and metformin interventions cost US dollars 24400 and US dollars 34500, respectively, per case of diabetes delayed or prevented and US dollars 51600 and US dollars 99200 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. As the interventions might be implemented in routine clinical practice and from a societal perspective, the lifestyle and metformin interventions cost US dollars 13200 and US dollars 14300, respectively, per case of diabetes delayed or prevented and US dollars 27100 and US dollars 35000 per QALY gained. From a health system perspective, costs per case of diabetes delayed or prevented and costs per QALY gained tended to be lower. Over 3 years, the lifestyle and metformin interventions were effective and were cost-effective from the perspective of a health system and society. Both interventions are likely to be affordable in routine clinical practice, especially if implemented in a group format and with generic medication pricing.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                diacare
                dcare
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                April 2012
                13 March 2012
                : 35
                : 4
                : 723-730
                Author notes
                [a ]Corresponding author: Diabetes Prevention Program Coordinating Center, dppmail@ 123456biostat.bsc.gwu.edu .

                Clinical trial reg. nos. NCT00038727 (DPPOS) and NCT00004992 (DPP), clinicaltrials.gov.

                This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/dc11-1468/-/DC1.

                A slide set summarizing this article is available online.

                *A complete list of the members of the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group, centers, and staff can be found in the Supplementary Data online, and members of the writing group are listed in the appendix.

                The opinions expressed in this article are those of the investigators and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies.

                Article
                1468
                10.2337/dc11-1468
                3308273
                22442395
                6efaeca2-5461-446c-935d-0e197092cead
                © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.

                Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

                Product
                Categories
                Original Research
                Epidemiology/Health Services Research

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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