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      Trial of Short-Course Antimicrobial Therapy for Intraabdominal Infection

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          The successful treatment of intraabdominal infection requires a combination of anatomical source control and antibiotics. The appropriate duration of antimicrobial therapy remains unclear.

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          Diagnosis and management of complicated intra-abdominal infection in adults and children: guidelines by the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

          Evidence-based guidelines for managing patients with intra-abdominal infection were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace those previously published in 2002 and 2003. The guidelines are intended for treating patients who either have these infections or may be at risk for them. New information, based on publications from the period 2003-2008, is incorporated into this guideline document. The panel has also added recommendations for managing intra-abdominal infection in children, particularly where such management differs from that of adults; for appendicitis in patients of all ages; and for necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates.
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            Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide: the definitive data of the CIAOW Study

            The CIAOW study (Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide observational study) is a multicenter observational study underwent in 68 medical institutions worldwide during a six-month study period (October 2012-March 2013). The study included patients older than 18 years undergoing surgery or interventional drainage to address complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). 1898 patients with a mean age of 51.6 years (range 18-99) were enrolled in the study. 777 patients (41%) were women and 1,121 (59%) were men. Among these patients, 1,645 (86.7%) were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 253 (13.3%) suffered from healthcare-associated infections. Intraperitoneal specimens were collected from 1,190 (62.7%) of the enrolled patients. 827 patients (43.6%) were affected by generalized peritonitis while 1071 (56.4%) suffered from localized peritonitis or abscesses. The overall mortality rate was 10.5% (199/1898). According to stepwise multivariate analysis (PR = 0.005 and PE = 0.001), several criteria were found to be independent variables predictive of mortality, including patient age (OR = 1.1; 95%CI = 1.0-1.1; p < 0.0001), the presence of small bowel perforation (OR = 2.8; 95%CI = 1.5-5.3; p < 0.0001), a delayed initial intervention (a delay exceeding 24 hours) (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.5-3.7; p < 0.0001), ICU admission (OR = 5.9; 95%CI = 3.6-9.5; p < 0.0001) and patient immunosuppression (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 2.1-6.7; p < 0.0001).
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              Source control in the management of severe sepsis and septic shock: an evidence-based review.

              In 2003, critical care and infectious disease experts representing 11 international organizations developed management guidelines for source control in the management of severe sepsis and septic shock that would be of practical use for the bedside clinician, under the auspices of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, an international effort to increase awareness and to improve outcome in severe sepsis. The process included a modified Delphi method, a consensus conference, several subsequent smaller meetings of subgroups and key individuals, teleconferences, and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee. The modified Delphi methodology used for grading recommendations built on a 2001 publication sponsored by the International Sepsis Forum. We undertook a systematic review of the literature graded along five levels to create recommendation grades from A to E, with A being the highest grade. Pediatric considerations to contrast adult and pediatric management are in the article by Parker et al. on p. S591. Source control represents a key component of success in therapy of sepsis. It includes drainage of infected fluids, debridement of infected soft tissues, removal of infected devices or foreign bodies, and finally, definite measures to correct anatomic derangement resulting in ongoing microbial contamination and to restore optimal function. Although highly logical, since source control is the best way to reduce quickly the bacterial inoculum, most recommendations are, however, graded as D or E due to the difficulty to perform appropriate randomized clinical trials in this respect. Appropriate source control should be part of the systematic checklist we have to keep in mind in setting up the therapeutic strategy in sepsis.

                Author and article information

                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                May 21 2015
                May 21 2015
                : 372
                : 21
                : 1996-2005
                [1 ]From the Department of Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville (R.G.S., C.A.G., K.P.); the Department of Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (T.M.D.); the Department of Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (J.A.C.); the Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto (A.B.N., O.D.R.); the Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle (H.L.E., E.P.D.); the Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (C.H.C.), and the...
                © 2015


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