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      Consumo alimentar e concentrações intra-eritrocitárias de folato em mulheres do Recife, Nordeste do Brasil Translated title: Folate food intake and red blood cell folate concentrations in women from Recife, Northeast of Brazil

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          Abstract

          Foi avaliado o consumo e concentrações intra-eritrocitárias de folato em mulheres do Recife, Nordeste, Brasil, mediante estudo de corte transversal, envolvendo 360 mulheres, de 15 a 45 anos, aleatoriamente rastreadas, por amostragem em dupla etapa, de 9 Unidades Públicas de Saúde, em 2007-2008. O consumo de folato foi avaliado pelo Questionário de Freqüência Alimentar Quantitativo e comparado com os valores da Dietary Reference Intakes-DRI’s. O status orgânico de folato foi avaliado pelas concentrações intra-eritrocitárias. A media geométrica do consumo diário de folato foi 627,1[IC95%600,4-655,0] µg/dia. A freqüência de mulheres com risco de ingestão de folato abaixo da recomendação foi 16,0% para adolescentes (<330µg/dia) e 6,3% para adultas jovens (<320µg/dia). A prevalência de mulheres cujo consumo excedeu o limite máximo tolerável de ingestão foi de 48,0% (>800µg/dia) e 13,7% (>1000µg/dia) para adolescentes e adultas, respectivamente. A média das concentrações de folato eritrocitário foi de 1797,8 ± 357,1 nmol/L. O consumo de alimentos-fonte de folato não mostrou correlação com as concentrações eritrocitárias (r= 0,058 e p= 0,274). Maiores concentrações de folato eritrocitário foram observadas em mulheres adultas jovens (p= 0,004) e entre aquelas com renda até dois salários mínimos (p= 0,042). Nas mulheres do Recife, tanto o consumo de alimentos-fonte de folato como as concentrações eritrocitárias de folato elevaram-se em patamares superiores às recomendações internacionais.

          Translated abstract

          Folate food intake and red blood cell folate concentrations were assess in women from Recife, Northeast Brazil. Following a two stages sampling procedure, a cross-sectional study was carried out involving 360 women, between 15-45y, attending in nine Health Care Public Unit in 2007-2008. Folate intake was evaluated by a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire, and compared with the values of the Dietary Reference Intakes- DRI’s. Folate status was evaluated by red blood cell folate concentrations. Geometric mean of folate intake was 627.1[IC95%600.4-655.0] µg/day. The frequency of women at risk for folate intake below the recommendation was 16.0% for adolescents (<330µg/ day) and 6.3% for young adult (<320µg/ day). The prevalence of women whose consumption exceeds the maximum tolerable intake was 48.0% (> 800µg/ day) and 13.7% (> 1000µg/ day) for adolescents and adults, respectively. The mean of red blood cell folate concentrations was 1797.8 ± 357.1nmol/L. Folate rich-food intake did not show any correlation with red blood cell folate concentrations (r= 0.058 and p= 0.274). Higher red blood cell folate concentrations were observed in adult young women (p=0.004) and among those with income up to two minimum wages (p=0.042). Folate rich-food intake as well as red blood cell folate concentrations among women from Recife were above the international recommendations.

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          Tabela de composição química dos alimentos

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            Do economic constraints encourage the selection of energy dense diets?

            Economic constraints, by inducing the selection of low cost energy dense diets, could indirectly be responsible for the high prevalence of obesity in low socio-economic status groups. Diet optimisation by linear programming was used to test this hypothesis, by examining the relationship between the cost and the energy density (ED) of modelled diets. Models were developed that minimized the departure from the mean adult French diet estimated from a cross-sectional dietary survey. Palatability constraints were introduced into all models. The impacts of cost on ED and of ED on cost were explored by introducing and strengthening first a constraint on cost and then a constraint on ED. Forcing the cost of the linear programming diets to decrease induced a strong increase in their EDs. In contrast, forcing the ED to increase induced only a moderate decrease in diet costs. These results suggest that, although an energy dense diet can be selected at a relatively high cost, when cost is not influencing food choices, an energy dense diet will be preferentially selected to maintain habitual French dietary patterns when the budget for food is low. This supports the hypothesis that economic constraints play a role in the high prevalence of obesity in low-income people.
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              Consumption of folic acid-fortified bread improves folate status in women of reproductive age in Chile.

              Since January 2000 the Chilean Ministry of Health has required the fortification of wheat flour with folic acid (FA) at a concentration of 2.2 mg FA/kg in order to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD) in newborns. This policy was expected to result in a mean additional intake of approximately 400 microg FA/d. We assessed the effectiveness of the FA flour fortification program on bread folate content and on blood folate concentration in women of childbearing age in Santiago, Chile. The prefortification folate status of 751 healthy women of reproductive age was assessed. The folate content of 100 bread samples bought at retail bakeries was measured, average wheat flour consumption was estimated and postfortification FA dietary intake was calculated. The effect of flour fortification on blood folate concentration in this group of women (n = 605) was evaluated in a follow-up study. Blood folate concentrations of the 605 women in the follow-up group increased (P < 0.0001) following fortification. Before fortification the mean serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were 9.7 +/- 4.3 and 290 +/- 102 nmol/L, respectively, compared with 37.2 +/- 9.5 and 707 +/- 179 nmol/L postfortification, respectively. The mean FA content of bread was 2020 +/- 940 micro g/kg. The median FA intake of the group evaluated postfortification was 427 microg/d (95% CI 409-445) based on an estimated intake of 219 g/d (95% CI 201-229) of wheat flour, mainly as bread. Fortification of wheat flour substantially improved folate status in a population of women of reproductive age in Chile. The effect of the FA fortification program on the occurrence of NTD is currently being assessed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                September 2010
                : 60
                : 3
                : 227-234
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal do Pernambuco/UFPE Brasil
                Article
                S0004-06222010000300003
                6f0dafc7-5e1c-423c-a6cc-6247c74074f2

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Food consumption,women in reproductive age,folate,fortification,red blood cell folate,Consumo alimentar,mulheres,folato,fortificação,folato eritrocitário

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