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      Characterization of Sigma 1 Receptor Antagonist CM-304 and Its Analog, AZ-66: Novel Therapeutics Against Allodynia and Induced Pain

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          Sigma-1 receptors (S1R) and sigma-2 receptors (S2R) may modulate nociception without the liabilities of opioids, offering a promising therapeutic target to treat pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo analgesic and anti-allodynic activity of two novel sigma receptor antagonists, the S1R-selective CM-304 and its analog the non-selective S1R/S2R antagonist AZ-66. Inhibition of thermal, induced chemical or inflammatory pain, as well as the allodynia resulting from chronic nerve constriction injury (CCI) and cisplatin exposure as models of neuropathic pain were assessed in male mice. Both sigma receptor antagonists dose-dependently (10–45 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced allodynia in the CCI and cisplatin neuropathic pain models, equivalent at the higher dose to the effect of the control analgesic gabapentin (50 mg/kg, i.p.), although AZ-66 demonstrated a much longer duration of action. Both CM-304 and AZ-66 produced antinociception in the writhing test [0.48 (0.09–1.82) and 2.31 (1.02–4.81) mg/kg, i.p., respectively] equivalent to morphine [1.75 (0.31–7.55) mg/kg, i.p.]. Likewise, pretreatment (i.p.) with either sigma-receptor antagonist dose-dependently produced antinociception in the formalin paw assay of inflammatory pain. However, CM-304 [17.5 (12.7–25.2) mg/kg, i.p.) and AZ-66 [11.6 (8.29–15.6) mg/kg, i.p.) were less efficacious than morphine [3.87 (2.85–5.18) mg/kg, i.p.] in the 55°C warm-water tail-withdrawal assay. While AZ-66 exhibited modest sedative effects in a rotarod assay and conditioned place aversion, CM-304 did not produce significant effects in the place conditioning assay. Overall, these results demonstrate the S1R selective antagonist CM-304 produces antinociception and anti-allodynia with fewer liabilities than established therapeutics, supporting the use of S1R antagonists as potential treatments for chronic pain.

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          Most cited references 69

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          A peripheral mononeuropathy in rat that produces disorders of pain sensation like those seen in man

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            Treatment of neuropathic pain: an overview of recent guidelines.

            A number of different treatments for neuropathic pain have been studied, but the literature is sizable, rapidly evolving, and lacks important information about practical aspects of patient management. Under the auspices of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group (NeuPSIG), a consensus process was used to develop evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain that take into account clinical efficacy, adverse effects, impact on health-related quality of life, convenience, and costs. On the basis of randomized clinical trials, medications recommended as first-line treatments for neuropathic pain included certain antidepressants (i.e., tricyclic antidepressants and dual reuptake inhibitors of both serotonin and norepinephrine), calcium channel alpha(2)-delta ligands (i.e., gabapentin and pregabalin), and topical lidocaine. Opioid analgesics and tramadol were recommended as second-line treatments that can be considered for first-line use in selected clinical circumstances. Other medications that generally would be used as third-line treatments include certain other antidepressant and antiepileptic medications, topical capsaicin, mexiletine, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists. Two other national and international associations recently published pharmacologic treatment guidelines for neuropathic pain, which are summarized and contrasted with the NeuPSIG recommendations. Recent guidelines for the use of neurostimulation for the treatment of neuropathic pain also are summarized. For all treatments for neuropathic pain, long-term studies, head-to-head comparisons, and studies of treatment combinations are a priority for future research.
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              Purification, molecular cloning, and expression of the mammalian sigma1-binding site.

              Sigma-ligands comprise several chemically unrelated drugs such as haloperidol, pentazocine, and ditolylguanidine, which bind to a family of low molecular mass proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. These so-called sigma-receptors are believed to mediate various pharmacological effects of sigma-ligands by as yet unknown mechanisms. Based on their opposite enantioselectivity for benzomorphans and different molecular masses, two subtypes are differentiated. We purified the sigma1-binding site as a single 30-kDa protein from guinea pig liver employing the benzomorphan(+)[3H]pentazocine and the arylazide (-)[3H]azidopamil as specific probes. The purified (+)[3H]pentazocine-binding protein retained its high affinity for haloperidol, pentazocine, and ditolylguanidine. Partial amino acid sequence obtained after trypsinolysis revealed no homology to known proteins. Radiation inactivation of the pentazocine-labeled sigma1-binding site yielded a molecular mass of 24 +/- 2 kDa. The corresponding cDNA was cloned using degenerate oligonucleotides and cDNA library screening. Its open reading frame encoded a 25.3-kDa protein with at least one putative transmembrane segment. The protein expressed in yeast cells transformed with the cDNA showed the pharmacological characteristics of the brain and liver sigma1-binding site. The deduced amino acid sequence was structurally unrelated to known mammalian proteins but it shared homology with fungal proteins involved in sterol synthesis. Northern blots showed high densities of the sigma1-binding site mRNA in sterol-producing tissues. This is also in agreement with the known ability of sigma1-binding sites to interact with steroids, such as progesterone.

                Author and article information

                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                14 June 2019
                : 10
                1Department of Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida , Gainesville, FL, United States
                2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Florida , Gainesville, FL, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ebru Aydar, University College London, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Francisco Javier López-Muñoz, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Mexico; Halina Machelska, Charité Medical University of Berlin, Germany; Enrique Portillo-Salido, Esteve Pharmaceuticals, Spain

                *Correspondence: Jay P. McLaughlin, jmclaughlin@ 123456cop.ufl.edu

                This article was submitted to Experimental Pharmacology and Drug Discovery, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Copyright © 2019 Cirino, Eans, Medina, Wilson, Mottinelli, Intagliata, McCurdy and McLaughlin

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 84, Pages: 14, Words: 7758
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                sigma, allodynia, analgesia, chronic pain, sedation, addiction


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