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      Factors contributing to post-traumatic growth following breast cancer: Results from a randomized longitudinal clinical trial containing psychological interventions

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          The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing post-traumatic growth in breast cancer patients during 3 years after diagnosis.

          Materials and methods

          Our longitudinal study involved 71 medium and high-risk breast cancer patients, who received special attention and either hypnosis or music psychological intervention while receiving the same chemotherapy protocol. The influences of the interventions, as well as the demographic (age, marital status, and educational level) and psychosocial factors (coping, post-traumatic stress, and well-being), on post-traumatic growth were explored.


          The results showed that over 97% of our patients experienced post-traumatic growth. It was positively associated with Quality of Life domains 3 years after diagnosis, and with Psychological Immune Competence cumulative scores after treatment and 3 years after diagnosis. Psychological Immune Competence, emotional severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms, and the social support scale of Quality of Life explained 33.9% of the variance of post-traumatic growth.


          The results confirm that positive coping strategies, emotional severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms, and social support contribute to post-traumatic growth, and that post-traumatic growth has a weak to moderate association with quality of life.

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          Most cited references 32

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          The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: measuring the positive legacy of trauma.

          The development of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, an instrument for assessing positive outcomes reported by persons who have experienced traumatic events, is described. This 21-item scale includes factors of New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strength, Spiritual Change, and Appreciation of Life. Women tend to report more benefits than do men, and persons who have experienced traumatic events report more positive change than do persons who have not experienced extraordinary events. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory is modestly related to optimism and extraversion. The scale appears to have utility in determining how successful individuals, coping with the aftermath of trauma, are in reconstructing or strengthening their perceptions of self, others, and the meaning of events.
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            Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2008.

            Up-to-date statistics on cancer occurrence and outcome are essential for the planning and evaluation of programmes for cancer control. Since the relevant information for 2008 is not generally available as yet, we used statistical models to estimate incidence and mortality data for 25 cancers in 40 European countries (grouped and individually) in 2008. The calculations are based on published data. If not collected, national rates were estimated from national mortality data and incidence and mortality data provided by local cancer registries of the same or neighbouring country. The estimated 2008 rates were applied to the corresponding country population estimates for 2008 to obtain an estimate of the numbers of cancer cases and deaths in Europe in 2008. There were an estimated 3.2 million new cases of cancer and 1.7 million deaths from cancer in 2008. The most common cancers were colorectal cancers (436,000 cases, 13.6% of the total), breast cancer (421,000, 13.1%), lung cancer (391,000, 12.2%) and prostate cancer (382,000, 11.9%). The most common causes of death from cancer were lung cancer (342,000 deaths, 19.9% of the total), colorectal cancer (212,000 deaths, 12.3%), breast cancer (129,000, 7.5%) and stomach cancer (117,000, 6.8%). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              The World Health Organization quality of life assessment (WHOQOL): Development and general psychometric properties


                Author and article information

                Developments in Health Sciences
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                21 August 2019
                : 1-7
                [ 1 ]Doctoral School of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University , Budapest, Hungary
                [ 2 ]Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University , Budapest, Hungary
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Orsolya Zsigmond; Doctoral School of Psychology and Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Izabella Str. 46, H-1064 Budapest, Hungary; E-mail: alyoosa@
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated. (SID_1)

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 38, Pages: 7
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