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      Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: Impact on All-Cause Mortality

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is characteristic of an acute-phase-reacting protein like C-reactive protein (CRP). However, the prognostic value of the serum MBL level has not been examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the serum MBL level can predict all-cause mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: A total of 131 patients without active infection, who had been on maintenance HD for at least 2 years, were included in this study. The serum MBL, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) level, nutrition markers, and biochemical parameters were measured in June 1999. The cohort was then followed prospectively for 36 months, and clinical data were recorded. Results: The MBL level of the 131 HD patients was 9.054 ± 5.115 µg/ml (mean ± SD). During the follow-up period, 18 patients (9 males and 9 females) died and 113 (64 males and 49 females) survived. The two leading causes of death were cardiovascular events (n = 6, 33.3%) and infection (n = 4, 22.2%). The serum MBL level was significantly lower among the nonsurvivors (6.596 ± 4.990 µg/ml) than among the survivors (9.445 ± 5.046 µg/ml; p < 0.05). There was a significant, although very weak, correlation between the MBL level and albumin level (p < 0.05), but there was no correlationbetween the MBL level and the hs-CRP level. The patients were divided into two groups according to the serum MBL level (<5 and >5 µg/ml). Multivariate analysis of factors predicting all-cause mortality in multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a serum MBL level <5 µg/ml as a variable that independently predicted all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 7.632; 95% CI: 2.244–25.961; p = 0.0011). Other significant and independent predictors for mortality included the hs-CRP level (every 100 µg/dl increase), hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the serum MBL level is a significant predictor of outcome in HD patients. HD patients with a low level of serum MBL should be carefully monitored.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Immunologic function and survival in hemodialysis patients.

          Although the medical determinants of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with hemodialysis (HD) are well appreciated, the contribution of immunologic parameters to survival in such patients is unclear, especially when variations in age, medical comorbidity and nutrition are controlled. In addition, although dysregulation of cytokine metabolism has been appreciated in patients with ESRD, the association of these parameters with outcomes has not been established. Recently, the type of dialyzer used in patients' treatment has been associated with survival, but the mechanisms underlying these findings, including their immune effects, have not been established. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, observational multicenter study of urban HD patients to determine the contribution of immunological factors to patient survival. We hypothesized increased proinflammatory cytokines would be associated with increased mortality, and that improved immune function would be associated with survival. Patients were assessed using demographic and anthropometric indices, Kt/V, protein catabolic rate (PCR) and immunologic variables including circulating cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] levels, total hemolytic complement activity (CH50), and T cell number and function. A severity index, previously demonstrated to be a mortality marker, was used to grade medical comorbidity. A Cox proportional hazards model, controlling for patients' age, severity index, level of serum albumin concentration, dialyzer type and dialysis site was used to asses relative survival risk. Two hundred and thirty patients entered the study. The mean (+/- SD) age of the population was 54.4 +/- 14.2 years, mean serum albumin concentration was 3.86 +/- 0.47 g/dl, mean PCR was 1.1 +/- 0.28 g/kg/day, and mean Kt/V 1.2 +/- 0.3. Patients' serum albumin concentration was correlated with levels of Kt/V and PCR, and their circulating IL-13 and TNF-alpha levels, but negatively with their circulating IL-2 levels, T-cell number and T-cell antigen recall function. T-cell antigen recall function correlated negatively with PCR, but not Kt/V. There was no correlation of any other immune parameter and medical or demographic factor. Immune parameters, were all highly intercorrelated. Mean level of circulating cytokines in HD patients were in all cases greater than those of a normal control group. There were few differences in medical risk factors or immune parameters between patients treated with different types of dialyzers. After an almost three-year mean follow-up period, increased IL-1, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-13 levels were significantly associated with increased relative mortality risk, while higher levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, T-cell number and function, and CH50 were associated with improved survival. The difference in survival between patients treated with unmodified cellulose dialyzers and modified or synthetic dialyzers approached the level of statistical significance, but there were no differences in levels of circulating cytokines between these two groups. Higher levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mortality, while immune parameters reflecting improved T-cell function are associated with survival in ESRD patients treated with HD, independent of other medical risk factors. These factors may serve as markers for outcome. The mechanism underlying the relationship of immune function and survival, and the effect of interventions to normalize immune function in HD patients should be studied.
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            Association of morbidity with markers of nutrition and inflammation in chronic hemodialysis patients: a prospective study.

            Numerous studies suggest a strong association between nutrition and clinical outcome in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological link between malnutrition and morbidity remains to be clarified. In addition, recent evidence suggests that nutritional indices may reflect an inflammatory response, as well as protein-calorie malnutrition. In this study, we prospectively assessed the relative importance of markers of nutritional status and inflammatory response as determinants of hospitalization in CHD patients. The study consisted of serial measurements of concentrations of serum albumin, creatinine, transferrin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and reactance values by bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) as an indirect measure of lean body mass every 3 months over a period of 15 months in 73 CHD patients. Outcome was determined by hospitalizations over the subsequent three months following each collection of data. Patients who required hospitalization in the three months following each of the measurement sets had significantly different values for all parameters than patients who were not hospitalized. Thus, serum albumin (3.93 +/- 0.39 vs. 3.74 +/- 0.39 g/dl), serum creatinine (11.0 +/- 3.7 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.5 mg/dl), serum transferrin (181 +/- 35 vs. 170 +/- 34 mg/dl), serum prealbumin (33.6 +/- 9.2 vs. 30.0 +/- 10.1 mg/dl), and reactance (50.4 +/- 15.6 vs. 43.0 +/- 13.0 ohms) were higher for patients not hospitalized, whereas CRP (0.78 +/- 0.89 vs. 2.25 +/- 2.72 mg/dl) was lower in patients who were not hospitalized. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05 for all parameters). When multivariate analysis was performed, serum CRP and reactance values were the only statistically significant predictors of hospitalization (P < 0.05 for both). When a serum CRP concentration of 0.12 mg/dl was considered as a reference range (relative risk 1.0), the relative risk for hospitalization was 7% higher (relative risk = 1.07) for a CRP concentration of 0.92 mg/dl and was 30% (relative risk = 1.30) higher for a CRP concentration of 3.4 mg/dl. When a reactance value of 70 ohms was considered as a reference range with a relative risk of 1.0, the relative risk of hospitalization increased to 1.09 for a reactance value of 43 ohms and further increased to 1.14 for a reactance value of 31 ohms. The results of this study strongly indicate that both nutritional status and inflammatory response are independent predictors of hospitalization in CHD patients. CRP and reactance values by BIA are reliable indicators of hospitalization. Visceral proteins such as serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin are influenced by inflammation when predicting hospitalization. When short-term clinical outcomes such as hospitalizations are considered, markers of both inflammation and nutrition should be evaluated.
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              The mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement activation: biology and disease association.

              Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a plasma protein found in association with several serine proteases (MASPs) forming the MBL complex. MBL recognises carbohydrate structures arranged in a particular geometry, such as those found on the surface of micro-organisms. When bound to e.g. bacteria the MBL complex will initiate the activation of the complement cascade. Mounting evidence supports the importance of the MBL pathway of complement activation in innate immunity. In this review, we focus on the structure and function of the proteins within the MBL pathway and address the properties of the pathway as an initiator of the host response against potential pathogenic micro-organisms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2006
                February 2006
                11 November 2005
                : 102
                : 3-4
                : c93-c99
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, bChoju Medical Institute, Fukishimura Hospital, Aichi, cInternal Medicine, Kasukabe-Kisen Hospital, Saitama, dInstitute of Glycotechnology and Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Kanagawa, and eDepartment of Biochemistry II, Fukushima Medical University, School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan
                Article
                89666 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;102:c93–c99
                10.1159/000089666
                16282701
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 29, Pages: 1
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                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/89666
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