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      Clinical and Biological Determinants of Kidney Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort Study

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          Background/Aims: Prospective studies on factors associated with adverse kidney outcomes in European general populations are scant. Also, few studies consider the potential confounding effect of baseline kidney function. Methods: We used baseline (2003-2006) and 5-year follow-up data of adults from the general population to evaluate the effect of baseline kidney function and proteinuria on the association of clinical, biological (e.g. uric acid, homocysteine, cytokines), and socioeconomic factors with change in kidney function, rapid decline in kidney function, and incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albuminuria-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were collected. Kidney outcomes were modeled using multivariable regressions. Results: A total of 4,441 subjects were included in the analysis. Among participants without CKD at baseline, 11.4% presented rapid decline in eGFR and/or incident CKD. After adjustment for baseline eGFR and log UACR, only age (Odds Ratio; 1.25 [95%CI 1.18-1.33]), diabetes (OR 1.48 [1.03-2.13]), education (OR middle vs. high 1.51 [1.08-2.11]) and log ultrasensitive CRP (OR 1.16 [1.05-1.22]) were associated with rapid decline in eGFR or incident CKD. Baseline log UACR (OR 1.18 [1.06-1.32]) but not eGFR was associated with rapid decline in eGFR and/or incident CKD. Conclusion: In addition to age and diabetes, education and CRP levels are associated with adverse kidney outcomes independently of baseline kidney function.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Chronic kidney disease: effects on the cardiovascular system.

          Accelerated cardiovascular disease is a frequent complication of renal disease. Chronic kidney disease promotes hypertension and dyslipidemia, which in turn can contribute to the progression of renal failure. Furthermore, diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal failure in developed countries. Together, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are major risk factors for the development of endothelial dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis. Inflammatory mediators are often elevated and the renin-angiotensin system is frequently activated in chronic kidney disease, which likely contributes through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species to the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in chronic kidney disease. Promoters of calcification are increased and inhibitors of calcification are reduced, which favors metastatic vascular calcification, an important participant in vascular injury associated with end-stage renal disease. Accelerated atherosclerosis will then lead to increased prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Consequently, subjects with chronic renal failure are exposed to increased morbidity and mortality as a result of cardiovascular events. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease are major considerations in the management of individuals with chronic kidney disease.
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            Estimation of Average Concentration in the Presence of Nondetectable Values

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              Proteinuria and the risk of developing end-stage renal disease.

              Dipstick urinalysis for proteinuria and hematuria has been used to screen renal disease, but evidence of the clinical impact of this test on development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is lacking. We assessed development of ESRD through 2000 in 106,177 screened patients (50,584 men and 55,593 women), 20 to 98 years old, in Okinawa, Japan, who participated in community-based mass screening between April 1983 and March 1984. We used data from the Okinawa Dialysis Study Registry to identify ESRD patients. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the significance of proteinuria and hematuria on the risk of developing ESRD with confounding variables such as age, gender, blood pressure, and body mass index. A similar analysis was repeated in a subgroup of screened patients in whom serum creatinine data existed. During 17 years of follow-up, 420 screened persons (246 men and 174 women) entered the ESRD program. We identified a strong, graded relationship between ESRD and dipstick urinalysis positive for proteinuria; adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.71 (2.51 to 2.92, P < 0.001). Similar trends were observed after adding serum creatinine data. Compared with dipstick-negative proteinuria, adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of proteinuria (1+) was 1.93 (1.53 to 2.41, P < 0.001) in men and 2.42 (1.91 to 3.06, P < 0.001) in women. Proteinuria was a strong, independent predictor of ESRD in a mass screening setting. Even a slight increase in proteinuria was an independent risk factor for ESRD. Therefore, asymptomatic proteinuria warrants further work-up and intervention.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                July 2014
                23 June 2014
                : 39
                : 1
                : 74-85
                aCommunity Prevention Unit, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne; bUnit of Population Epidemiology, Division of primary care medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Primary Care and Emergency Medicine; cDepartment of Nephrology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva; dDepartment of Nephrology; eDepartment of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
                Author notes
                *Idris Guessous, MD PhD, Community Prevention Unit, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre, Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland), Tel. +41223055861, Fax +41223055865, E-Mail
                355779 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:74-85
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (, applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 12
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Chronic kidney disease, Predictors, Inflammation, Proteinuria


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