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      Could FaRP-Like Peptides Participate in Regulation of Hyperosmotic Stress Responses in Plants?

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          The ability to respond to hyperosmotic stress is one of the numerous conserved cellular processes that most of the organisms have to face during their life. In metazoans, some peptides belonging to the FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) family were shown to participate in osmoregulation via regulation of ion channels; this is, a well-known response to hyperosmotic stress in plants. Thus, we explored whether FLPs exist and regulate osmotic stress in plants. First, we demonstrated the response of Arabidopsis thaliana cultured cells to a metazoan FLP (FLRF). We found that A. thaliana express genes that display typical FLP repeated sequences, which end in RF and are surrounded by K or R, which is typical of cleavage sites and suggests bioactivity; however, the terminal G, allowing an amidation process in metazoan, seems to be replaced by W. Using synthetic peptides, we showed that amidation appears unnecessary to bioactivity in A. thaliana, and we provide evidence that these putative FLPs could be involved in physiological processes related to hyperosmotic stress responses in plants, urging further studies on this topic.

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          Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates.

          The ability to control cell volume is pivotal for cell function. Cell volume perturbation elicits a wide array of signaling events, leading to protective (e.g., cytoskeletal rearrangement) and adaptive (e.g., altered expression of osmolyte transporters and heat shock proteins) measures and, in most cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. After acute swelling, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which involves the activation of KCl cotransport and of channels mediating K(+), Cl(-), and taurine efflux. Conversely, after acute shrinkage, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume increase (RVI), which is mediated primarily by Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport, and Na(+) channels. Here, we review in detail the current knowledge regarding the molecular identity of these transport pathways and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review.
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            The role of gibberellin signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress.

            Plant hormones are small molecules that regulate plant growth and development, as well as responses to changing environmental conditions. By modifying the production, distribution or signal transduction of these hormones, plants are able to regulate and coordinate both growth and/or stress tolerance to promote survival or escape from environmental stress. A central role for the gibberellin (GA) class of growth hormones in the response to abiotic stress is becoming increasingly evident. Reduction of GA levels and signalling has been shown to contribute to plant growth restriction on exposure to several stresses, including cold, salt and osmotic stress. Conversely, increased GA biosynthesis and signalling promote growth in plant escape responses to shading and submergence. In several cases, GA signalling has also been linked to stress tolerance. The transcriptional regulation of GA metabolism appears to be a major point of regulation of the GA pathway, while emerging evidence for interaction of the GA-signalling molecule DELLA with components of the signalling pathway for the stress hormone jasmonic acid suggests additional mechanisms by which GA signalling may integrate multiple hormone signalling pathways in the response to stress. Here, we review the evidence for the role of GA in these processes, and the regulation of the GA signalling pathway on exposure to abiotic stress. The potential mechanisms by which GA signalling modulates stress tolerance are also discussed.
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              ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development.

              KEY MESSAGE : We review the recent progress on ABA signaling, especially ABA signaling for ABA-dependent gene expression, including the AREB/ABF regulon, SnRK2 protein kinase, 2C-type protein phosphatases and ABA receptors. Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops. Drought causes osmotic stress to organisms, and the osmotic stress causes dehydration in plant cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under osmotic stress conditions, and it plays an important role in the stress response and tolerance of plants. ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. It also regulates gene expression during seed development and germination. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB)/ABRE-binding factor (ABF) transcription factors (TFs) regulate ABRE-dependent gene expression. Other TFs are also involved in ABA-responsive gene expression. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are the key regulators of ABA signaling including the AREB/ABF regulon. Recently, ABA receptors and group A 2C-type protein phosphatases were shown to govern the ABA signaling pathway. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress-response and seed development. The control of the expression of ABA signaling factors may improve tolerance to environmental stresses.

                Author and article information

                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/79332
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/163447
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/82461
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/79331
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/172669
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                14 August 2014
                : 5
                1Sorbonne Paris Cité, Institut des Energies de Demain, Université Paris Diderot , Paris, France
                2LINV-DiSPAA, Department of Agri-Food and Environmental Science, University of Florence , Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
                3Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, DMPA, Sorbonne Universités, UMR BOREA MNHN-CNRS 7208-IRD 207-UPMC-UCBN , Paris, France
                4Faculté des Sciences and Technologies, Université Paris Est Créteil-Val de Marne (UPEC) , Créteil, France
                5Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris Interdisciplinary Energy Research Institute (PIERI), Université Paris Diderot , Paris, France
                6UPMC UMR7622-IBPS , Paris, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: Sylvie Dufour, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, France

                Reviewed by: Stacia A. Sower, University of New Hampshire, USA; Christian Mazars, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France

                *Correspondence: François Bouteau, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Institut des Energies de Demain, Université Paris Diderot, Case Courrier 7040 Lamarck, Paris Cedex 13 75205, France e-mail: francois.bouteau@ 123456univ-paris-diderot.fr

                This article was submitted to Neuroendocrine Science, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology.

                Copyright © 2014 Bouteau, Bassaglia, Monetti, Tran, Navet, Mancuso, El-Maarouf-Bouteau and Bonnaud-Ponticelli.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 51, Pages: 9, Words: 5841
                Hypothesis and Theory

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                arabidopsis thaliana, drought, farp-like peptides, osmotic stress, stomata


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