22 March 1999
The prevalence of microalbuminuria and its relationship to cardiovascular disease risk factors were examined in subjects participating in an annual physical and laboratory examination program. The urinary albumin concentration and the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were determined in morning urine specimens. A turbidimetric immunoassay was used for the measurement of urinary albumin. Of the 731 subjects, 41 (5.6%) who were weakly positive or positive on a routine dipstick test for protein were excluded from the final analysis of data. Microalbuminuria was present in 14.5% of the men, in 12.4% of the women, and in 13.2% of the entire subject population when defined as a urinary albumin concentration of 30–299 μg/ml. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was significantly higher in subjects with a high normal blood pressure (15.0%) or hypertension (26.2%) as compared with normotensive subjects (6.5%). Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (24.3%) or hyperglycemic subjects (50.0%) had a significantly higher prevalence of microalbuminuria than normoglycemic subjects (11.3%). The prevalence of microalbuminuria was significantly higher in subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy (47.1%) as compared with those with normal electrocardiograms (11.3%). A good correlation was observed between urinary albumin concentration and albumin/creatinine ratio, and both showed a significant positive correlation with age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and fasting plasma glucose, total serum protein, albumin, and triglyceride levels, but not with angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that both the urinary albumin concentration and the albumin/creatinine ratio show a significant positive correlation with systolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was about 13% in this Japanese cohort, and the systolic blood pressure and the fasting plasma glucose level were demonstrated as independent risk indicators for both urinary microalbumin level and urinary microalbumin/creatinine ratio.