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      Multi-Drug Resistant Coliform: Water Sanitary Standards and Health Hazards

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          Abstract

          Water constitutes and sustains life; however, its pollution afflicts its necessity, further worsening its scarcity. Coliform is one of the largest groups of bacteria evident in fecally polluted water, a major public health concern. Coliform thrive as commensals in the gut of warm-blooded animals, and are indefinitely passed through their feces into the environment. They are also called as model organisms as their presence is indicative of the prevalence of other potential pathogens, thus coliform are and unanimously employed as adept indicators of fecal pollution. As only a limited accessible source of fresh water is available on the planet, its contamination severely affects its usability. Coliform densities vary geographically and seasonally which leads to the lack of universally uniform regulatory guidelines regarding water potability often leads to ineffective detection of these model organisms and the misinterpretation of water quality status. Remedial measures such as disinfection, reducing the nutrient concentration or re-population doesn’t hold context in huge lotic ecosystems such as freshwater rivers. There is also an escalating concern regarding the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in coliforms which renders antibiotic therapy incompetent. Antimicrobials are increasingly used in household, clinical, veterinary, animal husbandry and agricultural settings. Sub-optimal concentrations of these antimicrobials are unintentionally but regularly dispensed into the environment through seepages, sewages or runoffs from clinical or agricultural settings substantially adding to the ever-increasing pool of antibiotic resistance genes. When present below their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), these antimicrobials trigger the transfer of antibiotic-resistant genes that the coliform readily assimilate and further propagate to pathogens, the severity of which is evidenced by the high Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index shown by the bacterial isolates procured from the environmental. This review attempts to assiduously anthologize the use of coliforms as water quality standards, their existent methods of detection and the issue of arising multi-drug resistance in them.

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          Most cited references 61

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          Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: an emerging public-health concern.

          The medical community relies on clinical expertise and published guidelines to assist physicians with choices in empirical therapy for system-based infectious syndromes, such as community-acquired pneumonia and urinary-tract infections (UTIs). From the late 1990s, multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (mostly Escherichia coli) that produce extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs), such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of UTIs. Recent reports have also described ESBL-producing E coli as a cause of bloodstream infections associated with these community-onset UTIs. The carbapenems are widely regarded as the drugs of choice for the treatment of severe infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, although comparative clinical trials are scarce. Thus, more rapid diagnostic testing of ESBL-producing bacteria and the possible modification of guidelines for community-onset bacteraemia associated with UTIs are required.
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            Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M beta-lactamases: the worldwide emergence of clone ST131 O25:H4.

            Since 2000, Escherichia coli producing CTX-M enzymes have emerged worldwide as important causes of community-onset urinary tract and bloodstream infections owing to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. Molecular epidemiological studies suggested that the sudden worldwide increase of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli was mainly due to a single clone (ST131) and that foreign travel to high-risk areas, such as the Indian subcontinent, might in part play a role in the spread of this clone across different continents. Empirical antibiotic coverage for these resistant organisms should be considered in community patients presenting with sepsis involving the urinary tract, especially if the patient recently travelled to a high-risk area. If this emerging public health threat is ignored, it is possible that the medical community may be forced, in the near future, to use carbapenems as the first choice for the empirical treatment of serious infections associated with urinary tract infections originating from the community. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
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              Mortality and morbidity trends: is there compression of morbidity?

              This paper reviews trends in mortality and morbidity to evaluate whether there has been a compression of morbidity. Review of recent research and analysis of recent data for the United States relating mortality change to the length of life without 1 of 4 major diseases or loss of mobility functioning. Mortality declines have slowed down in the United States in recent years, especially for women. The prevalence of disease has increased. Age-specific prevalence of a number of risk factors representing physiological status has stayed relatively constant; where risks decline, increased usage of effective drugs is responsible. Mobility functioning has deteriorated. Length of life with disease and mobility functioning loss has increased between 1998 and 2008. Empirical findings do not support recent compression of morbidity when morbidity is defined as major disease and mobility functioning loss.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-9812
                12 June 2018
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                1School of Life Sciences, Sambalpur University , Sambalpur, India
                2Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, University of Florida , Gainesville, FL, United States
                3UoN Chair of Oman’s Medicinal Plants and Marine Natural Products, University of Nizwa , Nizwa, Oman
                4Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University , Gyeongsan, South Korea
                Author notes

                Edited by: Shruti Shukla, Dongguk University, South Korea

                Reviewed by: Sonu Gandhi, Amity University, India; Laxmi Ahirwal, Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, India

                *Correspondence: Meerambika Mishra, meerambika.mishra@ 123456gmail.com Ananta P. Arukha, ananta.arukhaa@ 123456gmail.com Dhananjay Yadav, dhanyadav16481@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Predictive Toxicology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Article
                10.3389/fphar.2018.00311
                6005870
                Copyright © 2018 Mishra, Arukha, Patel, Behera, Mohanta and Yadav.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 86, Pages: 8, Words: 0
                Categories
                Pharmacology
                Mini Review

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