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      Thylakoid ΔpH-dependent precursor proteins bind to a cpTatC–Hcf106 complex before Tha4-dependent transport

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          The thylakoid ΔpH-dependent pathway transports folded proteins with twin arginine–containing signal peptides. Identified components of the machinery include cpTatC, Hcf106, and Tha4. The reaction occurs in two steps: precursor binding to the machinery, and transport across the membrane. Here, we show that a cpTatC–Hcf106 complex serves as receptor for specific binding of twin arginine–containing precursors. Antibodies to either Hcf106 or cpTatC, but not Tha4, inhibited precursor binding. Blue native gel electrophoresis and coimmunoprecipitation of digitonin-solubilized thylakoids showed that Hcf106 and cpTatC are members of an ∼700-kD complex that lacks Tha4. Thylakoid-bound precursor proteins were also associated with an ∼700-kD complex and were coimmunoprecipitated with antibodies to cpTatC or Hcf106. Chemical cross-linking revealed that precursors make direct contact with cpTatC and Hcf106 and confirmed that Tha4 is not associated with precursor, cpTatC, or Hcf106 in the membrane. Precursor binding to the cpTatC–Hcf106 complex required both the twin arginine and the hydrophobic core of the signal peptide. Precursors remained bound to the complex when Tha4 was sequestered by antibody, even in the presence of ΔpH. These results indicate that precursor binding to the cpTatC–Hcf106 complex constitutes the recognition event for this pathway and that subsequent participation by Tha4 leads to translocation.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

          The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The boulders concentrate initially in transient high pressures in the turbulent gas (Johansen, Klahr, & Henning 2006), and these concentrations are augmented a further order of magnitude by a streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005, Johansen, Henning, & Klahr 2006, Johansen & Youdin 2007) driven by the relative flow of gas and solids. We find that gravitationally bound clusters form with masses comparable to dwarf planets and containing a distribution of boulder sizes. Gravitational collapse happens much faster than radial drift, offering a possible path to planetesimal formation in accreting circumstellar discs.
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            Engineering hybrid genes without the use of restriction enzymes: gene splicing by overlap extension.

            Gene splicing by overlap extension is a new approach for recombining DNA molecules at precise junctions irrespective of nucleotide sequences at the recombination site and without the use of restriction endonucleases or ligase. Fragments from the genes that are to be recombined are generated in separate polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The primers are designed so that the ends of the products contain complementary sequences. When these PCR products are mixed, denatured, and reannealed, the strands having the matching sequences at their 3' ends overlap and act as primers for each other. Extension of this overlap by DNA polymerase produces a molecule in which the original sequences are 'spliced' together. This technique is used to construct a gene encoding a mosaic fusion protein comprised of parts of two different class-I major histocompatibility genes. This simple and widely applicable approach has significant advantages over standard recombinant DNA techniques.
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              Protein translocation into proteoliposomes reconstituted from purified components of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

              We have reproduced the process of protein transport across and of protein integration into the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum membrane by the use of proteoliposomes reconstituted from pure phospholipids and purified membrane proteins. The transport of some proteins requires only two membrane protein complexes: the signal recognition particle receptor, needed for targeting of a nascent chain to the membrane, and a novel complex, the Sec61p complex, that consists of Sec61p and two smaller polypeptides. The translocation of other proteins also needs the presence of the translocating chain-association membrane (TRAM) protein. The integration of two membrane proteins of different topologies into the membrane does not require additional components. These results indicate a surprising simplicity of the basic translocation machinery. They suggest that the Sec61p complex binds the ribosome during translocation and forms the postulated protein-conducting channel.

                Author and article information

                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                20 August 2001
                : 154
                : 4
                : 719-730
                Horticultural Sciences and Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611
                Author notes

                Address correspondence to Kenneth Cline, Horticultural Sciences Department, Fifield Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Tel.: (352) 392-4711 ext. 219. Fax: (352) 392-5653. E-mail: kcline@

                Copyright © 2001, The Rockefeller University Press
                Research Article

                Cell biology

                chloroplast; receptor; tat pathway, signal peptide; twin arginine


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