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      Situação ecológica, socioeconómica e de governança após a implementação do primeiro plano de ordenamento no Parque Marinho Professor Luiz Saldanha (Arrábida, Portugal): I - informações e opiniões dos pescadores Translated title: Ecological, socioeconomic and governance conditions after the implementation of the first spatial plan in the Prof. Luiz Saldanha Marine Park (Arrábida, Portugal): I - Fisher information and opinions

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          Abstract

          O Parque Marinho Professor Luiz Saldanha (PMLS - Arrábida, Portugal) foi criado em 1998 e está regulado por um plano de ordenamento desde 2005. Este estudo apresenta os resultados de um inquérito que recolheu informações e opiniões de pescadores do PMLS sobre a situação ecológica, socioeconómica e de governança 4-7 anos após a implementação faseada das regras nesta área marinha protegida (AMP). As 31 perguntas sobre o sistema social-ecológico e algumas perguntas auxiliares foram presencialmente respondidas em entrevistas individuais por 23 pescadores do PMLS (cerca de um terço dos licenciados) aleatoriamente escolhidos. As informações sobre a actividade pesqueira são utilizadas para formar indicadores de estado e de tendência para parâmetros ecológicos. As opiniões relacionadas com a interacção com outros utentes, as regras do PMLS e instituições associadas formam indicadores socioeconómicos e de governança considerados relevantes para qualquer AMP. Os resultados são comparados com dados oficiais de actividade pesqueira no porto de origem (Sesimbra) e com informações de literatura publicada. No geral, a caracterização da pesca do PMLS com base nas respostas ao inquérito foi reveladora de uma maior complexidade do que anteriormente reconhecida para esta pequena frota; os resultados para os indicadores ecológicos no PMLS genericamente apontam para ausência de mudança, mas são inconclusivos, dado a ausência de padrões claros nas respostas e algumas incongruências com outras fontes de informação. Os resultados para os indicadores socioeconómicos e de governança são claros no registo maioritário de desalento, mas difusos no registo das causas e propostas de solução. Esta análise é complementada pelo estudo de Stratoudakis et al., (2015) sobre as percepções de outros utentes do PMLS relativamente à mesma temática, aonde também se cruzam os resultados dos dois inquéritos. O objectivo conjunto destes trabalhos é apoiar a avaliação da eficácia de gestão no processo da primeira revisão do plano de ordenamento do PMLS e a iniciação de um plano de monitorização longitudinal focando em metodologias participativas.

          Translated abstract

          The Prof. Luiz Saldanha Marine Park (PMLS - Arrábida, Portugal) was created in 1998 and is regulated by a spatial plan since 2005 (POPNA). The present study shows results from an inquiry that collected information and opinions of PMLS fishers on the ecological, socio-economic and governance conditions 4-7 years after the phased introduction of regulation in this marine protected area (MPA). The 31 questions about the social-ecological system and some auxiliary questions were re-sponded by 23 fishermen (skippers of a third of the <7 m fishing vessels from Sesimbra allowed to operate in the Park) in individual interviews. Information on fishing activity is used to construct state and trend indicators for ecological variables (mean CPUE for target species, size of biggest target specimen caught in a year, number of bycatch species, number of vessels fishing at the outer limits of the MPA, etc.). Opinions related to the interaction with other users, the PMLS rules and associated institutions form socioeconomic and governance indicators considered relevant for any MPA (number of fishers affected by POPNA introduction, number of fishers known to seek PMLS license, perceived value of fishing boat and MPA license, prioritization of conflicts, etc.). The results are compared with official data of fishing activity in the fishing port of origin, Sesimbra (number of vessels and characteristics, number of landing trips, quantities and values landed daily by species and vessel) and with literature information. Overall, the characterization of the fishing activity within the PMLS based on the questionnaire replies reveals more complexity than previously reported for this small fishing fleet. The already known distinction between the smaller “aiolas” (older, wooden boats <4 m with low engine power and no mechanical support for gear lifting) and the larger “botes” (newer, PVC boats, 5-7 m length, with bigger engine power and mechanical gear lifting support) is further accentuated by demonstration that “aiolas” are exclusively operating within the Park using lines and having significant lower CPUEs than the larger “botes” that also use nets and pots and in most cases simultaneously operate both within and outside the Park. The ecological results appoint to an absence of change for most indicators and a non-significant decline in target species abundance. However, these results do not depict increases in relative abundance for hake, white seabreams and red mullet that are observed in the PMLS daily landings per vessel and supported by independent observations either at larger scales (hake) or within the PMLS (white seabreams) or can be explained by modifications in the PMLS fishing regulations (red mullet). The results on the socioeconomic and governance indicators are clear in the demonstration of pessimism, but diffuse in appointing to causes or possible solutions. Although the majority does not want their descendents to relate to fishing and for themselves prefer to return to the pre-POPNA situation, they also recognize a value in the MPA license, know of people that want to acquire it and consider co-management with the MPA authority as the best way to manage the fishery. Official data on small scale fishing vessel registers from continental Portugal confirm that the number of PMLS vessels reduced in the period 2006-2014 almost the double of the national median in that period (41% vs 22% reduction), however this reduction has only partly led to vessel decommissioning (mainly small “aiolas”; the entry of few new and more potent vessels has actually led to a net increase in total engine power of small fishing vessels at Sesimbra compared to the year of POPNA implementation. This analysis is complemented by the study of Stratoudakis et al. (2015) on perceptions of other PMLS users with respect to the same issues. The joint objective of these studies is to support the management effectiveness evaluation underway in the process of revision of POPNA and the initiation of a longitudinal monitoring plan for the PMLS, using participative methodologies.

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            Marine reserves are increasingly recognized as having linked social and ecological dynamics. This study investigates how the ecological performance of 56 marine reserves throughout the Philippines, Caribbean, and Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is related to both reserve design features and the socioeconomic characteristics in associated coastal communities. Ecological performance was measured as fish biomass in the reserve relative to nearby areas. Of the socioeconomic variables considered, human population density and compliance with reserve rules had the strongest effects on fish biomass, but the effects of these variables were region specific. Relationships between population density and the reserve effect on fish biomass were negative in the Caribbean, positive in the WIO, and not detectable in the Philippines. Differing associations between population density and reserve effectiveness defy simple explanation but may depend on human migration to effective reserves, depletion of fish stocks outside reserves, or other social factors that change with population density. Higher levels of compliance reported by resource users was related to higher fish biomass in reserves compared with outside, but this relationship was only statistically significant in the Caribbean. A heuristic model based on correlations between social, cultural, political, economic, and other contextual conditions in 127 marine reserves showed that high levels of compliance with reserve rules were related to complex social interactions rather than simply to enforcement of reserve rules. Comparative research of this type is important for uncovering the complexities surrounding human dimensions of marine reserves and improving reserve management.
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              Who knows? On the importance of identifying “experts” when researching local ecological knowledge

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rgci
                Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada
                RGCI
                Associação Portuguesa dos Recursos Hídricos (Lisboa )
                1646-8872
                June 2015
                : 15
                : 2
                : 153-166
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera IP Portugal
                [2 ] Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas IP Portugal
                Article
                S1646-88722015000200002
                10.5894/rgci571
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                WATER RESOURCES

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