Blog
About

8
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      The projections of the ventral tegmental area and adjacent regions: A combined fluorescent retrograde tracer and immunofluorescence study in the rat

      Brain Research Bulletin

      Elsevier BV

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 90

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Stereotaxic Mapping of the Monoamine Pathways in the Rat Brain*

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Efferent connections of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the rat.

            Small injections of tritiated leucine and proline confined to the ventral tegmental area (AVT) were found to label fibers ascending: (a) to the entire ventromedial half of the striatum, but most massively to the ventral striatal zone that includes the nucleus accumbens; (b) to the thalamus: lateral habenular nucleus, nuclei reuniens and centralis medius, and the most medial zone of the mediodorsal nucleus; (c) to the posterior hypothalamic nucleus and possibly the lateral hypothalamic and preoptic region; (d) to the nuclei amygdalae centralis, lateralis and medialis; (e) to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the nucleus of the diagonal band, and the medial half of the lateral septal nucleus; (f) to the anteromedial (frontocingulate) cortex; and (g) to the entorhinal area. Further AVT efferents descend to the medial half of the midbrain tegmentum including an anterior region of the median raphe nucleus, to the ventral half of the central grey substance including the dorsal raphe nucleus, to the parabrachial nuclei, and to the locus coeruleus. Similar injections centered in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra (SNC) label fibers that are distributed in the striatum in an orderly medial-to-lateral arrangement, and almost entirely avoid the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle. With the exception of the lateral quarter of the substantia nigra, which apparently does not project to the extreme rostral pole of the striatum, each small SNC locus, regardless of its anteroposterior localization, distributes nigrostriatal fibers throughout the length of the striatum. Descending SNC efferents are distributed to the same general regions that receive descending AVT projections, except that no SNC fibers appear to enter the locus coeruleus. Isotope injections confined to the pars reticulata (SNR) label sparse nigrostriatal fibers, and numerous nigrothalamic fibers ascending mainly to the nucleus ventromedialis and in lesser number to the parafascicular nucleus and the paralamellar zone of the nucleus mediodorsalis. Descending SNR fibers leave the nigra as a voluminous fiber bundle that bifurcates into a large nigrotectal and a smaller nigrotegmental component, the latter terminating largely in the pedunculopontine nucleus of the pontomesencephalic tegmentum.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The central adrenergic system. An immunofluorescence study of the location of cell bodies and their efferent connections in the rat utilizing dopamine-beta-hydroxylase as a marker.

              A sensitive immunofluorescence technique was used to describe systematically the distrubution of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH)-containing cell bodies, non-terminal fiber pathways, and terminal fields in the brain of the male albino rat. DBH is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline, and as such is useful as an anatomical marker for noradrenaline and possibly adrenaline neurons. The enzyme is not present in dopamine- or indolamine-containing neurons. Ten micron frozen sections (1-in 20 series) were prepared in the frontal, sagittal, and horizontal planes from the olfactory bulb to the upper cervical segments of the spinal cord; adjacent sections in each plane were stained for DBH and for cells (toluidine blue=azure II). An atlas consisting of 40 projection drawings of selected frontal sections illustrates the results of the investigation. DBH perikarya are confined to three groups in the pons and medulla: the well defined locus coeruleus, a more diffuse but continuous subcoeruleus group that arches through the pons and ventral medulla, and a third dorsal medullary group centered in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. A single principal adrenergic fiber system distributes a great many of the axons from these neuron groups to a majority of nuclear areas in the brain. In the pons and medulla two components of the fiber system may be distinguished. A medullary branch may be followed from the posterior aspect of the subcoeruleus group dorsally and then anteriorly through the lateral tegmental field and ventral aspect of the vestibular complex to a position subjacent to the locus coeruleus, where it is joined by a subcoeruleus branch consisting of a large number of fibers coursing among cells along the length of the subcoeruleus group, and by fibers arising from the locus coeruleus. Anterior to the locus coeruleus the principal adrenergic bundle courses as a single fiber tract immediately ventrolateral to the central gray in the mesencephalon and in the zona incerta and substantia innominata in the diencephalon. At the level of the septal area separate bundles reach the cortex dorsally over the genu of the corpus calosum via the medial septal-diagonal band nuclei and the lateral septum and ventrally between the olfactory tubercle and caudate-putamen. In the medulla and pons adrenergic fibers undoubtedly course in both directions. Anterior to the most rostral pontine cell bodies, however, all fibers presumably ascend. Along the course of the bundle distinct branches emerge to innervate circumscribed terminal fields. In addition, certain regions of the brain such as the reticular formation and pontine gray receive diffuse DBH innervation derived from less clearly defined pathways. A small number of areas in the brain contain little or no detectable DBH. These include the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, pretectal area, third, fourth and sixth cranial verve nuclei, and the trapezoid body nucleus.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Brain Research Bulletin
                Brain Research Bulletin
                Elsevier BV
                03619230
                July 1982
                July 1982
                : 9
                : 1-6
                : 321-353
                Article
                10.1016/0361-9230(82)90145-9
                © 1982

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                Comments

                Comment on this article