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      Prospectus of cultured meat—advancing meat alternatives

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      Journal of Food Science and Technology

      Springer Nature

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          Clonally derived human embryonic stem cell lines maintain pluripotency and proliferative potential for prolonged periods of culture.

          Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines derived from human blastocysts have the developmental potential to form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers even after prolonged culture. Here we describe the clonal derivation of two human ES cell lines, H9.1 and H9.2. At the time of the clonal derivation of the H9.1 and H9.2 ES cell lines, the parental ES cell line, H9, had already been continuously cultured for 6 months. After an additional 8 months of culture, H9.1 and H9.2 ES cell lines continued to: (1) actively proliferate, (2) express high levels of telomerase, and (3) retain normal karyotypes. Telomere lengths, while somewhat variable, were maintained between 8 and 12 kb in high-passage H9.1 and H9.2 cells. High-passage H9.1 and H9.2 cells both formed teratomas in SCID-beige mice that included differentiated derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. These results demonstrate the pluripotency of single human ES cells, the maintenance of pluripotency during an extended period of culture, and the long-term self-renewing properties of cultured human ES cells. The remarkable developmental potential, proliferative capacity, and karyotypic stability of human ES cells distinguish them from adult cells. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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            GRAZING SYSTEMS, ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES, AND GLOBAL CHANGE

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              Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue.

              One of the major obstacles in engineering thick, complex tissues such as muscle is the need to vascularize the tissue in vitro. Vascularization in vitro could maintain cell viability during tissue growth, induce structural organization and promote vascularization upon implantation. Here we describe the induction of endothelial vessel networks in engineered skeletal muscle tissue constructs using a three-dimensional multiculture system consisting of myoblasts, embryonic fibroblasts and endothelial cells coseeded on highly porous, biodegradable polymer scaffolds. Analysis of the conditions for induction and stabilization of the vessels in vitro showed that addition of embryonic fibroblasts increased the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the construct and promoted formation and stabilization of the endothelial vessels. We studied the survival and vascularization of the engineered muscle implants in vivo in three different models. Prevascularization improved the vascularization, blood perfusion and survival of the muscle tissue constructs after transplantation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Food Science and Technology
                J Food Sci Technol
                Springer Nature
                0022-1155
                0975-8402
                April 2011
                December 2010
                : 48
                : 2
                : 125-140
                Article
                10.1007/s13197-010-0198-7
                © 2011
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