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      Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels Predict Perioperative Events in Cardiac Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery: A Prospective Study

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          Abstract

          Objectives: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels correlate with prognosis in patients with cardiac disease and may be useful in the risk stratification of cardiac patients undergoing noncardiac surgery (NCS). The objective of this study was to examine whether BNP levels predict perioperative events in cardiac patients undergoing NCS. Methods: Patients undergoing NCS with at least 1 of the following criteria were included: a clinical history of congestive heart failure (CHF), ejection fraction <40%, or severe aortic stenosis. All patients underwent echocardiography and measurement of BNP performed using the ADVIA-Centaur BNP assay (Bayer HealthCare). Clinical endpoints were death, myocardial infarction or pulmonary congestion requiring intravenous diuretics at 30 days of follow-up. Results: Forty-four patients were entered into the study; 15 patients (34%) developed cardiac postoperative complications. The mean BNP level was 1,366 ± 1,420 pg/ml in patients with events and 167 ± 194 pg/ml in patients without events, indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.001). The ROC area under the curve was 0.91 (95% CI 0.83–0.99) with an optimal cutoff of >165 pg/ml (100% sensitivity, 70% specificity). Conclusions: BNP levels may predict perioperative complications in cardiac patients undergoing NCS, and the measurement of BNP should be considered to assess the preoperative cardiac risk.

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          Most cited references 15

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          The prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

          Brain (B-type) natriuretic peptide is a neurohormone synthesized predominantly in ventricular myocardium. Although the circulating level of this neurohormone has been shown to provide independent prognostic information in patients with transmural myocardial infarction, few data are available for patients with acute coronary syndromes in the absence of ST-segment elevation. We measured B-type natriuretic peptide in plasma specimens obtained a mean (+/-SD) of 40+/-20 hours after the onset of ischemic symptoms in 2525 patients from the Orbofiban in Patients with Unstable Coronary Syndromes-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 16 study. The base-line level of B-type natriuretic peptide was correlated with the risk of death, heart failure, and myocardial infarction at 30 days and 10 months. The unadjusted rate of death increased in a stepwise fashion among patients in increasing quartiles of base-line B-type natriuretic peptide levels (P< 0.001). This association remained significant in subgroups of patients who had myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (P=0.02), patients who had myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation (P<0.001), and patients who had unstable angina (P<0.001). After adjustment for independent predictors of the long-term risk of death, the odds ratios for death at 10 months in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of B-type natriuretic peptide were 3.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 13.3), 4.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 13.7), and 5.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 19.7). The level of B-type natriuretic peptide was also associated with the risk of new or recurrent myocardial infarction (P=0.01) and new or worsening heart failure (P<0.001) at 10 months. A single measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide, obtained in the first few days after the onset of ischemic symptoms, provides powerful information for use in risk stratification across the spectrum of acute coronary syndromes. This finding suggests that cardiac neurohormonal activation may be a unifying feature among patients at high risk for death after acute coronary syndromes.
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            A new natriuretic peptide in porcine brain.

            Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a hormone secreted from mammalian atria, regulates the homoeostatic balance of body fluid and blood pressure. ANP-like immunoreactivity is also present in the brain, suggesting that the peptide functions as a neuropeptide. We report here identification in porcine brain of a novel peptide of 26 amino-acid residues, eliciting a pharmacological spectrum very similar to that of ANP, such as natriuretic-diuretic, hypotensive and chick rectum relaxant activities. The complete amino-acid sequence determined for the peptide is remarkably similar to but definitely distinct from the known sequence of ANP, indicating that the genes for the two are distinct. Thus, we have designated the peptide 'brain natriuretic peptide' (BNP). The occurrence of BNP with ANP in mammalian brain suggests the possibility that the physiological functions so far thought to be mediated by ANP may be regulated through a dual mechanism involving both ANP and BNP.
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              B-type natriuretic peptide predicts sudden death in patients with chronic heart failure.

              Given the high incidence of sudden death in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and the efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, an appropriate tool for the prediction of sudden death is desirable. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has prognostic significance in CHF, and the stimuli for its production cause electrophysiological abnormalities. This study tests BNP levels as a predictor of sudden death. BNP levels, in addition to other neurohormonal, clinical, and hemodynamic variables, were obtained from 452 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < or =35%. For prediction of sudden death, only survivors without heart transplantation (HTx) or a mechanical assist device and patients who died suddenly were analyzed. Up to 3 years, 293 patients survived without HTx or a mechanical assist device, 89 patients died, and 65 patients underwent HTx. Mode of death was sudden in 44 patients (49%), whereas 31 patients (35%) had pump failure and 14 patients (16%) died from other causes. Univariate risk factors of sudden death were log BNP (P=0.0006), log N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide (P=0.003), LVEF (P=0.005), log N-terminal BNP (P=0.006), systolic blood pressure (P=0.01), big endothelin (P=0.03), and NYHA class (P=0.04). In the multivariate model, log BNP level was the only independent predictor of sudden death (P=0.0006). Using a cutoff point of log BNP <2.11 (130 pg/mL), Kaplan-Meier sudden death-free survival rates were significantly higher in patients below (99%) compared with patients above (81%) this cutoff point (P=0.0001). BNP levels are a strong, independent predictor of sudden death in patients with CHF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2008
                June 2008
                12 December 2007
                : 110
                : 4
                : 266-270
                Affiliations
                Departments of Cardiology and Medicine, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
                Article
                112411 Cardiology 2008;110:266–270
                10.1159/000112411
                18073483
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 28, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Research

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