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      HEMOGLOBINA GLICOSILADA O HEMOGLOBINA GLICADA, ¿CUÁL DE LAS DOS? Translated title: GLYCOSILATED HEMOGLOBIN OR GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN, WHICH OF THE TWO?

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          Abstract

          La hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c) constituye un fiel indicador para evaluar los pacientes diabéticos y gracias a la estandarización alcanzada en la prueba, es el primer criterio de diagnóstico de diabetes en individuos asintomáticos o con sospecha clínica de esta enfermedad, de acuerdo con la American Diabetes Association (ADA). Se define a la HbA1c, según la International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), como un término genérico referido a un grupo de sustancias que se forman a partir de reacciones bioquímicas entre la hemoglobina A (HbA) y algunos azúcares reductores presentes en la circulación sanguínea, siendo la glucosa el más abundante de ellos. Esta reacción es conocida con el nombre de reacción de Maillard, la cual se basa en una glicosilación no enzimática o más correctamente denominada, una glicación. La costumbre, desconocimiento o confusión entre ambos procesos químicos ha llevado a que se siga haciendo uso del término de hemoglobina glicosilada en vez de hemoglobina glicada. En el presente artículo se ofrece una revisión del proceso de formación de la hemoglobina A1c, definiendo la reacción de glicosilación y glicación de una proteína, las especies químicas que favorecen la glicación, las características del proceso de glicación de la hemoglobina, las etapas en las cuales se da y los efectos relacionados con la glicación de proteínas en los seres humanos, para finalmente concluir con un pasaje de las denominaciones que ha recibido la HbA1c hasta el presente; todo con el objetivo de esclarecer y dar propiedad al empleo de la denominación de hemoglobina glicada.

          Translated abstract

          Hemolobin A1c (HbA1c) has become a faithful indicator to monitor diabetic patients and thanks to the standardization achieved in the test, is the first step for diagnosis of diabetes in asymptomatic individuals or with clinical suspicion of the disease, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). HbA1c is defined, according to the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), as a generic term referring to a group of substances that are formed from biochemical reactions between hemoglobin A (HbA) and some reducing sugars present in the bloodstream, glucose being the most abundant of them. This reaction is known as the Maillard reaction, which is based on a non-enzimatic glycosylation, or more correctly called, in a glycation. Custom, ignorance or confusion among both chemical processes has led to use the term glycosylated hemoglobin instead of glycated hemoglobin. This article provides a review of the process of formation of hemoglobin A1c, defining the reaction of glycosylation and the protein glycation, the chemical species that favor the glycation, the characteristics of the process of glycation of hemoglobin, stages in which it occurs and the effects related to the glycation of proteins in human beings, to finally conclude with a passage of designations which has received the HbA1c to the present; all with the aim of clarifying and giving property to the use of the term glycated hemoglobin.

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          A history of HbA1c through Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

          HbA(1c) was discovered in the late 1960s and its use as marker of glycemic control has gradually increased over the course of the last four decades. Recognized as the gold standard of diabetic survey, this parameter was successfully implemented in clinical practice in the 1970s and 1980s and internationally standardized in the 1990s and 2000s. The use of standardized and well-controlled methods, with well-defined performance criteria, has recently opened new directions for HbA(1c) use in patient care, e.g., for diabetes diagnosis. Many reports devoted to HbA1c have been published in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) journal. This review reminds the major steps of HbA(1c) history, with a special emphasis on the contribution of CCLM in this field.
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            Glycated Lysine Residues: A Marker for Non-Enzymatic Protein Glycation in Age-Related Diseases

            Nonenzymatic glycosylation or glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation, play an important role in diseases. Glycation of proteins primarily results in the formation of an early stage and stable Amadori-lysine product which undergo further irreversible chemical reactions to form advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This review focuses these products in lysine rich proteins such as collagen and human serum albumin for their role in aging and age-related diseases. Antigenic characteristics of glycated lysine residues in proteins together with the presence of serum autoantibodies to the glycated lysine products and lysine-rich proteins in diabetes and arthritis patients indicates that these modified lysine residues may be a novel biomarker for protein glycation in aging and age-related diseases.
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              Disruption of Amyloid-Derived Peptide Assemblies through the Controlled Induction of a β-Sheet to α-Helix Transformation: Application of the Switch Concept

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                saber
                Saber
                Saber
                Universidad de Oriente
                2343-6468
                December 2015
                : 27
                : 4
                : 521-529
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad del Zulia
                [2 ] Universidad del Zulia
                [3 ] Universidad del Zulia
                [4 ] Hospital General del Sur Venezuela
                Article
                S1315-01622015000400002
                6f866888-ef5e-4673-9edd-a45f409a535e

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1315-0162&lng=en
                Categories
                MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES

                HbA1c,glicación,glicosilación,hemoglobina glicada,glycation,glycosylation,glycated,hemoglobin

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