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      Urinary kallikrein excretion is related to renal function change and inflammatory status in chronic kidney disease patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment

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      Nephrology

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Most cited references 15

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          Review of aldosterone- and angiotensin II-induced target organ damage and prevention.

          Aldosterone is well recognized as a cause of sodium reabsorption, water retention, and potassium and magnesium loss; however, it also produces a variety of other actions that lead to progressive target organ damage in the heart, vasculature, and kidneys. Aldosterone interacts with mineralocorticoid receptors to promote endothelial dysfunction, facilitate thrombosis, reduce vascular compliance, impair baroreceptor function, and cause myocardial and vascular fibrosis. Although angiotensin II has been considered the major mediator of cardiovascular damage, increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone may mediate and exacerbate the damaging effects of angiotensin II. While angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce plasma aldosterone levels initially, aldosterone rebound, or 'escape' may occur during long-term therapy. Therefore, aldosterone blockade is required to reduce the risk of progressive target organ damage in patients with hypertension and heart failure. This may be achieved nonselectively with spironolactone or with use of the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone. While both agents have been demonstrated to be effective antihypertensive agents, eplerenone may produce improved target organ protection as witnessed in a variety of clinical settings, without the antiandrogenic and progestational effects commonly observed with spironolactone.
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            Pentoxifylline ameliorates proteinuria through suppression of renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in patients with proteinuric primary glomerular diseases.

            Proteinuria (albuminuria) reflects dysfunction of the glomerular permeability barrier in which inflammatory cytokines play a key role. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunomudulatory effects. This study evaluated the effectiveness of PTX to reduce proteinuria and inflammatory mediators in patients with proteinuric primary glomerular diseases. Seventeen patients with primary glomerular diseases, a persistent spot proteinuria exceeding 1.5 g/g creatinine (Cr) and a glomerular filtration rate between 24 and 115 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were treated with PTX 400 mg twice daily for 6 months. Before and after the treatment, serum Cr, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations, plasma and urinary tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-1beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as urinary protein and Cr were measured. PTX significantly reduced urinary protein excretion, along with an increase of serum albumin. A significant correlation existed between the basal urinary protein/Cr and the basal urinary MCP-1/Cr ratios. PTX lowered the urinary MCP-1/Cr ratio, and the percent reduction of urinary protein/Cr ratio correlated directly with the precent decrease of urinary MCP-1/Cr ratio after PTX treatment. There was no significant change in blood pressure, renal function, biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations, or plasma TNF-alpha and MCP-1 levels during the study. In conclusion, administration of PTX 800 mg per day is safe and effective for reducing proteinuria in patients with proteinuric primary glomerular diseases. This beneficial effect occurs in close association with a reduction of urinary MCP-1 excretion.
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              Transforming growth factor-beta(1) in the kidney and urine of patients with glomerular disease and proteinuria.

              Transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) is the major fibrogenic growth factor implicated in the pathogenesis of renal scarring. Proteinuria is a poor prognostic feature for various types of glomerular disease and its toxic action may be related to the activation of tubular epithelial cells towards increased production of cytokines and chemoattractant peptides. In this work we studied the site of synthesis and expression profile of TGF-beta(1) in the renal tissue of patients with heavy proteinuria and examined the relation of this expression with the urinary excretion of TGF-beta(1). Twenty-five patients with heavy proteinuria (8.4+/-3.0 g/24 h) were included in the study. All patients underwent a diagnostic kidney biopsy and were commenced on immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and cyclosporin. The sites of synthesis and expression profile of TGF-beta(1) mRNA and protein in the kidney were examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Urinary and plasma TGF-beta(1) levels were determined by ELISA before the initiation of treatment and 6 months later and compared with those of normal subjects and of patients with IgA nephropathy and normal urinary protein excretion. The site of synthesis and expression of TGF-beta(1) in the renal tissue of patients with heavy proteinuria was mainly localized within the cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cells. Interstitial expression was also present but glomerular TGF-beta(1) expression was found only in patients with mesangial proliferation. Urinary TGF-beta(1) excretion was significantly higher in nephrotic patients compared with normal subjects and with patients with IgA nephropathy and normal urinary protein excretion (783+/-280 vs 310+/-140 and 375+/-90 ng/24 h, respectively; P<0.01). In patients with remission of proteinuria after immunosuppressive therapy, urinary TGF-beta(1) excretion was significantly reduced (from 749+/-290 to 495+/-130 ng/24 h; P<0.01), while in patients with persistent nephrotic syndrome, it remained elevated. The localization of TGF-beta(1) mRNA and protein within tubular epithelial cells, along with its increased urinary excretion in patients with nephrotic syndrome, suggest the activation of these cells by filtered protein towards increased TGF-beta(1) production.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nephrology
                Nephrology
                Wiley-Blackwell
                1320-5358
                1440-1797
                April 2008
                April 2008
                : 13
                : 3
                : 198-203
                Article
                10.1111/j.1440-1797.2008.00933.x
                © 2008

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