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      Urine-derived stem cells: A novel and versatile progenitor source for cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine

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          Abstract

          Engineered functional organs or tissues, created with autologous somatic cells and seeded on biodegradable or hydrogel scaffolds, have been developed for use in individuals with tissue damage suffered from congenital disorders, infection, irradiation, or cancer. However, in those patients, abnormal cells obtained by biopsy from the compromised tissue could potentially contaminate the engineered tissues. Thus, an alternative cell source for construction of the neo-organ or functional recovery of the injured or diseased tissues would be useful. Recently, we have found stem cells existing in the urine. These cells are highly expandable, and have self-renewal capacity, paracrine properties, and multi-differentiation potential. As a novel cell source, urine-derived stem cells (USCs) provide advantages for cell therapy and tissue engineering applications in regeneration of various tissues, particularly in the genitourinary tract, because they originate from the urinary tract system. Importantly, USCs can be obtained via a non-invasive, simple, and low-cost approach and induced with high efficiency to differentiate into three dermal cell lineages.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from urine.

          Forced expression of selected transcription factors can transform somatic cells into embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells, termed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). There is no consensus regarding the preferred tissue from which to harvest donor cells for reprogramming into iPSCs, and some donor cell types may be more prone than others to accumulation of epigenetic imprints and somatic cell mutations. Here, we present a simple, reproducible, noninvasive method for generating human iPSCs from renal tubular cells present in urine. This procedure eliminates many problems associated with other protocols, and the resulting iPSCs display an excellent ability to differentiate. These data suggest that urine may be a preferred source for generating iPSCs. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology
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            Urine derived cells are a potential source for urological tissue reconstruction.

            Contemporary approaches to tissue engineering and cell therapy for urinary tract reconstruction require invasive tissue biopsies to obtain autologous cells. However, these procedures are associated with potential complications. We determined whether the cells present in urine have characteristics of normal bladder cells and investigated their potential uses for urological reconstructive procedures. A total of 55 urine samples were collected from 15 healthy individuals and 8 patients with vesicoureteral reflux. Urine derived cells were isolated, expanded and tested for progenitor and differentiated cell specific markers using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and Western immunoblotting. The chromosomal stability of cultured urine derived cells was determined by karyotype analysis. Clones were successfully established from primary cultures of urine derived cells. Isolated cells showed 3 phenotypes, including fully differentiated, differentiating and progenitor-like cells. Some urine derived cells stained positive for the surface markers c-Kit, SSEA4, CD105, CD73, CD91, CD133 and CD44. Two to 7 cells per 100 ml urine were multipoint progenitors that could expand extensively in culture. Single progenitor cells had the ability to differentiate into the cell lineages expressing urothelial, smooth muscle, endothelial and interstitial cell markers. The expression of lineage markers was characterized by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Urine derived cells also maintained a normal karyotype after serial culture. A subpopulation of cells isolated from urine had progenitor cell features and the potential to differentiate into several bladder cell lineages. Urine derived cells could serve as an alternative cell source for urinary tract tissue engineering and reconstruction.
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              Recruitment of podocytes from glomerular parietal epithelial cells.

              Loss of a critical number of podocytes from the glomerular tuft leads to glomerulosclerosis. Even in health, some podocytes are lost into the urine. Because podocytes themselves cannot regenerate, we postulated that glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs), which proliferate throughout life and adjoin podocytes, may migrate to the glomerular tuft and differentiate into podocytes. Here, we describe transitional cells at the glomerular vascular stalk that exhibit features of both PECs and podocytes. Metabolic labeling in juvenile rats suggested that PECs migrate to become podocytes. To prove this, we generated triple-transgenic mice that allowed specific and irreversible labeling of PECs upon administration of doxycycline. PECs were followed in juvenile mice beginning from either postnatal day 5 or after nephrogenesis had ceased at postnatal day 10. In both cases, the number of genetically labeled cells increased over time. All genetically labeled cells coexpressed podocyte marker proteins. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time recruitment of podocytes from PECs in juvenile mice. Unraveling the mechanisms of PEC recruitment onto the glomerular tuft may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to renal injury.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                12 July 2014
                September 2014
                12 July 2014
                : 1
                : 1
                : 8-17
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Urology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China
                [b ]Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA
                [c ]Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, China
                [d ]Center for Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Department of Radiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                S2352-3042(14)00006-3
                10.1016/j.gendis.2014.07.001
                4234168
                25411659
                Copyright © 2014, Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

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