Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Recommendations for the management of adult chronic myeloid leukaemia in South Africa

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      INTRODUCTION: Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterised by a chromosomal translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22 resulting in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene. The management of CML has undergone major changes over the past decade. Novel treatment approaches have had a dramatic impact on patient outcomes and survival. Nevertheless, these outcomes can only be achieved in the context of expert management, careful monitoring of disease response, appropriate management of adverse events and timeous adjustments to therapy when responses are not achieved within stated time frames. AIM: With the advent of novel treatments providing molecular responses, both the monitoring and management of CML have become more complicated. The aim of these recommendations was to provide a pragmatic yet comprehensive roadmap to negotiate these complexities. METHODS: Recommendations were developed based on local expert opinion from both the academic and private medical care arenas after careful review of the relevant literature and taking into account the most widely used international guidelines. About five meetings were held at which these recommendations were discussed and debated in detail. RESULTS: A comprehensive set of recommendations was compiled with an emphasis on diagnosis, investigation, treatment and monitoring of disease. Careful attention was given to circumstances unique to South Africa, funding constraints, availability and access to laboratory resources, as well as the effects of concurrent HIV infection. CONCLUSION: Most patients with CML can live a reasonably normal life if their disease is appropriately managed. These recommendations should be of value to all specialists involved in the treatment of haematological disorders.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 43

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Five-year follow-up of patients receiving imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia.

      The cause of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a constitutively active BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. Imatinib inhibits this kinase, and in a short-term study was superior to interferon alfa plus cytarabine for newly diagnosed CML in the chronic phase. For 5 years, we followed patients with CML who received imatinib as initial therapy. We randomly assigned 553 patients to receive imatinib and 553 to receive interferon alfa plus cytarabine and then evaluated them for overall and event-free survival; progression to accelerated-phase CML or blast crisis; hematologic, cytogenetic, and molecular responses; and adverse events. The median follow-up was 60 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates of cumulative best rates of complete cytogenetic response among patients receiving imatinib were 69% by 12 months and 87% by 60 months. An estimated 7% of patients progressed to accelerated-phase CML or blast crisis, and the estimated overall survival of patients who received imatinib as initial therapy was 89% at 60 months. Patients who had a complete cytogenetic response or in whom levels of BCR-ABL transcripts had fallen by at least 3 log had a significantly lower risk of disease progression than did patients without a complete cytogenetic response (P<0.001). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events diminished over time, and there was no clinically significant change in the profile of adverse events. After 5 years of follow-up, continuous treatment of chronic-phase CML with imatinib as initial therapy was found to induce durable responses in a high proportion of patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00006343 [ClinicalTrials.gov].) Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Imatinib compared with interferon and low-dose cytarabine for newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia.

        Imatinib, a selective inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, produces high response rates in patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who have had no response to interferon alfa. We compared the efficacy of imatinib with that of interferon alfa combined with low-dose cytarabine in newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML. We randomly assigned 1106 patients to receive imatinib (553 patients) or interferon alfa plus low-dose cytarabine (553 patients). Crossover to the alternative group was allowed if stringent criteria defining treatment failure or intolerance were met. Patients were evaluated for hematologic and cytogenetic responses, toxic effects, and rates of progression. After a median follow-up of 19 months, the estimated rate of a major cytogenetic response (0 to 35 percent of cells in metaphase positive for the Philadelphia chromosome) at 18 months was 87.1 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 84.1 to 90.0) in the imatinib group and 34.7 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 29.3 to 40.0) in the group given interferon alfa plus cytarabine (P<0.001). The estimated rates of complete cytogenetic response were 76.2 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 72.5 to 79.9) and 14.5 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 10.5 to 18.5), respectively (P<0.001). At 18 months, the estimated rate of freedom from progression to accelerated-phase or blast-crisis CML was 96.7 percent in the imatinib group and 91.5 percent in the combination-therapy group (P<0.001). Imatinib was better tolerated than combination therapy. In terms of hematologic and cytogenetic responses, tolerability, and the likelihood of progression to accelerated-phase or blast-crisis CML, imatinib was superior to interferon alfa plus low-dose cytarabine as first-line therapy in newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Nilotinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia.

          Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase. In this phase 3, randomized, open-label, multicenter study, we assigned 846 patients with chronic-phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive nilotinib (at a dose of either 300 mg or 400 mg twice daily) or imatinib (at a dose of 400 mg once daily). The primary end point was the rate of major molecular response at 12 months. At 12 months, the rates of major molecular response for nilotinib (44% for the 300-mg dose and 43% for the 400-mg dose) were nearly twice that for imatinib (22%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The rates of complete cytogenetic response by 12 months were significantly higher for nilotinib (80% for the 300-mg dose and 78% for the 400-mg dose) than for imatinib (65%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients receiving either the 300-mg dose or the 400-mg dose of nilotinib twice daily had a significant improvement in the time to progression to the accelerated phase or blast crisis, as compared with those receiving imatinib (P=0.01 and P=0.004, respectively). No patient with progression to the accelerated phase or blast crisis had a major molecular response. Gastrointestinal and fluid-retention events were more frequent among patients receiving imatinib, whereas dermatologic events and headache were more frequent in those receiving nilotinib. Discontinuations due to aminotransferase and bilirubin elevations were low in all three study groups. Nilotinib at a dose of either 300 mg or 400 mg twice daily was superior to imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00471497.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] University of the Free State Netherlands
            [2 ] University of Pretoria South Africa
            [3 ] University of Witwatersrand South Africa
            [4 ] Inyuvesi YaKwaZulu-Natali South Africa
            [5 ] Parklands Medical Centre, Berea
            [6 ] University of Cape Town South Africa
            [7 ] Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
            [8 ] Panorama Medical Centre, W Cape
            [9 ] University of Witwatersrand South Africa
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            samj
            SAMJ: South African Medical Journal
            SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j.
            Health and Medical Publishing Group (Cape Town )
            2078-5135
            November 2011
            : 101
            : 11
            : 840-846
            S0256-95742011001100026

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO South Africa
            Categories
            Health Care Sciences & Services
            Health Policy & Services
            Medical Ethics
            Medicine, General & Internal
            Medicine, Legal
            Medicine, Research & Experimental

            Comments

            Comment on this article