The taxonomy of the deep-water spider crabs of the genus Scyramathia A. Milne-Edwards, 1880, is revised and four extant species are recognised from the Atlantic and western Indian Ocean: S. carpenteri (Norman, in Thomson 1873) (type species), S. umbonata (Stimpson, 1871), S. hertwigi Doflein, in Chun 1900, and S. tenuipes sp. nov. Scyramathia tenuipes sp. nov. from the Mediterreanean is easily distinguished from its congeners by its slender and elongate ambulatory legs. All species are diagnosed and figured. The taxonomy of two allied genera from the Atlantic and Mediterranean, Rochinia A. Milne-Edwards, 1875, and Anamathia Smith, 1885, are also treated and their type species redescribed and figured.