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Interaction and cross-talk between non-coding RNAs

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      Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has been shown to regulate diverse cellular processes and functions through controlling gene expression. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as a competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) where microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs regulate each other through their biding sites. Interactions of miRNAs and lncRNAs have been reported to trigger decay of the targeted lncRNAs and have important roles in target gene regulation. These interactions form complicated and intertwined networks. Certain lncRNAs encode miRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and may regulate expression of these small RNAs as precursors. SnoRNAs have also been reported to be precursors for PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and thus may regulate the piRNAs as a precursor. These miRNAs and piRNAs target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and regulate gene expression. In this review, we will present and discuss these interactions, cross-talk, and co-regulation of ncRNAs and gene regulation due to these interactions.

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      Most cited references 167

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      MicroRNAs: target recognition and regulatory functions.

       David Bartel (2009)
      MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 23 nt RNAs that play important gene-regulatory roles in animals and plants by pairing to the mRNAs of protein-coding genes to direct their posttranscriptional repression. This review outlines the current understanding of miRNA target recognition in animals and discusses the widespread impact of miRNAs on both the expression and evolution of protein-coding genes.
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        Conserved seed pairing, often flanked by adenosines, indicates that thousands of human genes are microRNA targets.

        We predict regulatory targets of vertebrate microRNAs (miRNAs) by identifying mRNAs with conserved complementarity to the seed (nucleotides 2-7) of the miRNA. An overrepresentation of conserved adenosines flanking the seed complementary sites in mRNAs indicates that primary sequence determinants can supplement base pairing to specify miRNA target recognition. In a four-genome analysis of 3' UTRs, approximately 13,000 regulatory relationships were detected above the estimate of false-positive predictions, thereby implicating as miRNA targets more than 5300 human genes, which represented 30% of our gene set. Targeting was also detected in open reading frames. In sum, well over one third of human genes appear to be conserved miRNA targets.
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          Most mammalian mRNAs are conserved targets of microRNAs.

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs that pair to sites in mRNAs to direct post-transcriptional repression. Many sites that match the miRNA seed (nucleotides 2-7), particularly those in 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs), are preferentially conserved. Here, we overhauled our tool for finding preferential conservation of sequence motifs and applied it to the analysis of human 3'UTRs, increasing by nearly threefold the detected number of preferentially conserved miRNA target sites. The new tool more efficiently incorporates new genomes and more completely controls for background conservation by accounting for mutational biases, dinucleotide conservation rates, and the conservation rates of individual UTRs. The improved background model enabled preferential conservation of a new site type, the "offset 6mer," to be detected. In total, >45,000 miRNA target sites within human 3'UTRs are conserved above background levels, and >60% of human protein-coding genes have been under selective pressure to maintain pairing to miRNAs. Mammalian-specific miRNAs have far fewer conserved targets than do the more broadly conserved miRNAs, even when considering only more recently emerged targets. Although pairing to the 3' end of miRNAs can compensate for seed mismatches, this class of sites constitutes less than 2% of all preferentially conserved sites detected. The new tool enables statistically powerful analysis of individual miRNA target sites, with the probability of preferentially conserved targeting (P(CT)) correlating with experimental measurements of repression. Our expanded set of target predictions (including conserved 3'-compensatory sites), are available at the TargetScan website, which displays the P(CT) for each site and each predicted target.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2297 6811, GRID grid.266102.1, Department of Urology, , University of California, San Francisco, ; San Francisco, CA USA
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0419 2775, GRID grid.410372.3, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, ; San Francisco, CA USA
            Cell Mol Life Sci
            Cell. Mol. Life Sci
            Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
            Springer International Publishing (Cham )
            24 August 2017
            24 August 2017
            : 75
            : 3
            : 467-484
            28840253 5765200 2626 10.1007/s00018-017-2626-6
            © The Author(s) 2017

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

            Funded by: NIH
            Award ID: R01CA196848
            Award ID: RO1CA138642
            Award ID: RO1CA160079
            Award ID: RO1CA199694
            Award ID: RO1CA184966
            Award Recipient :
            Funded by: VA
            Award ID: BX001604
            Award Recipient :
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            © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018


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