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      The SEED and the Rapid Annotation of microbial genomes using Subsystems Technology (RAST)

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          Abstract

          In 2004, the SEED ( http://pubseed.theseed.org/) was created to provide consistent and accurate genome annotations across thousands of genomes and as a platform for discovering and developing de novo annotations. The SEED is a constantly updated integration of genomic data with a genome database, web front end, API and server scripts. It is used by many scientists for predicting gene functions and discovering new pathways. In addition to being a powerful database for bioinformatics research, the SEED also houses subsystems (collections of functionally related protein families) and their derived FIGfams (protein families), which represent the core of the RAST annotation engine ( http://rast.nmpdr.org/). When a new genome is submitted to RAST, genes are called and their annotations are made by comparison to the FIGfam collection. If the genome is made public, it is then housed within the SEED and its proteins populate the FIGfam collection. This annotation cycle has proven to be a robust and scalable solution to the problem of annotating the exponentially increasing number of genomes. To date, >12 000 users worldwide have annotated >60 000 distinct genomes using RAST. Here we describe the interconnectedness of the SEED database and RAST, the RAST annotation pipeline and updates to both resources.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs.

          The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original. In addition, a method is introduced for automatically combining statistically significant alignments produced by BLAST into a position-specific score matrix, and searching the database using this matrix. The resulting Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) program runs at approximately the same speed per iteration as gapped BLAST, but in many cases is much more sensitive to weak but biologically relevant sequence similarities. PSI-BLAST is used to uncover several new and interesting members of the BRCT superfamily.
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            The RAST Server: Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology

            Background The number of prokaryotic genome sequences becoming available is growing steadily and is growing faster than our ability to accurately annotate them. Description We describe a fully automated service for annotating bacterial and archaeal genomes. The service identifies protein-encoding, rRNA and tRNA genes, assigns functions to the genes, predicts which subsystems are represented in the genome, uses this information to reconstruct the metabolic network and makes the output easily downloadable for the user. In addition, the annotated genome can be browsed in an environment that supports comparative analysis with the annotated genomes maintained in the SEED environment. The service normally makes the annotated genome available within 12–24 hours of submission, but ultimately the quality of such a service will be judged in terms of accuracy, consistency, and completeness of the produced annotations. We summarize our attempts to address these issues and discuss plans for incrementally enhancing the service. Conclusion By providing accurate, rapid annotation freely to the community we have created an important community resource. The service has now been utilized by over 120 external users annotating over 350 distinct genomes.
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              KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets

              Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, http://www.genome.jp/kegg/ or http://www.kegg.jp/) is a database resource that integrates genomic, chemical and systemic functional information. In particular, gene catalogs from completely sequenced genomes are linked to higher-level systemic functions of the cell, the organism and the ecosystem. Major efforts have been undertaken to manually create a knowledge base for such systemic functions by capturing and organizing experimental knowledge in computable forms; namely, in the forms of KEGG pathway maps, BRITE functional hierarchies and KEGG modules. Continuous efforts have also been made to develop and improve the cross-species annotation procedure for linking genomes to the molecular networks through the KEGG Orthology system. Here we report KEGG Mapper, a collection of tools for KEGG PATHWAY, BRITE and MODULE mapping, enabling integration and interpretation of large-scale data sets. We also report a variant of the KEGG mapping procedure to extend the knowledge base, where different types of data and knowledge, such as disease genes and drug targets, are integrated as part of the KEGG molecular networks. Finally, we describe recent enhancements to the KEGG content, especially the incorporation of disease and drug information used in practice and in society, to support translational bioinformatics.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes, Burr Ridge, IL 60527, USA, 2Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA, 3Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, 4Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, 5Department of Computer Science, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA, 6Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA, 7Computing, Environment and Life Sciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA and 8Department of Computer Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +1 630 325 4178; Fax: +1 630 325 4179; Email: veronika@ 123456thefig.info
                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                January 2014
                29 November 2013
                29 November 2013
                : 42
                : D1 , Database issue
                : D206-D214
                24293654 3965101 10.1093/nar/gkt1226 gkt1226
                © The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Counts
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                II. Protein sequence and structure, motifs and domains
                Custom metadata
                1 January 2014

                Genetics

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