Smaller animals display pecular characteristics related to their small body size, and miniaturization has recently been intensely studied in insects, but not in other arthropods. Collembola, or springtails, are abundant soil microarthropods and form one of the four basal groups of hexapods. Many of them are notably smaller than 1 mm long, which makes them a good model for studying miniaturization effects in arthropods. In this study we analyze for the first time the anatomy of the minute springtail Mesaphorura sylvatica (body length 400 µm). It is described using light and scanning electron microscopy and 3D computer reconstruction. Possible effects of miniaturization are revealed based on a comparative analysis of data from this study and from studies on the anatomy of larger collembolans. Despite the extremely small size of M. sylvatica, some organ systems, e.g., muscular and digestive, remain complex. On the other hand, the nervous system displays considerable changes. The brain has two pairs of apertures with three pairs of muscles running through them, and all ganglia are shifted posteriad by one segment. The relative volumes of the skeleton, brain, and musculature are smaller than those of most microinsects, while the relative volumes of other systems are greater than or the same as in most microinsects. Comparison of the effects of miniaturization in collembolans with those of insects has shown that most of the miniaturization-related features of M. sylvatica have also been found in microinsects (shift of the brain into the prothorax, absent heart, absence of midgut musculature, etc.), but also has revealed unique features (brain with two apertures and three pairs of muscles going through them), which have not been described before.