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      Prevalence of Adolescent Problem Gambling: A Systematic Review of Recent Research


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          Previous research has shown that gambling is a popular activity among adolescents. Following a rapid expansion of legalized gambling opportunities and the emergence of new forms of gambling, many researchers have carried out studies on adolescent gambling and problem gambling. The present paper reviews studies that have been conducted worldwide since 2000, and then presents a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling research in Europe, by providing a country-by country analysis. After an extensive search on academic databases and following an exclusion process, 44 studies were identified. The findings showed that 0.2–12.3 % of youth meet criteria for problem gambling, notwithstanding differences among assessment instruments, cut-offs, and timeframes. However, despite this variability, several demographic characteristics were associated with adolescent gambling involvement and problem gambling. It is concluded that a small but significant minority of adolescents have gambling-related problems. Such findings will hopefully encourage more research into youth gambling to further understand the determinants of this phenomenon.

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          Most cited references59

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          Reckless behavior in adolescence: A developmental perspective

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            Toward the development of an adolescent gambling problem severity scale

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              The social determinants of youth gambling in South Australian adolescents.

              Recent Australian studies (Moore, S.M., and Ohtsuka, K. (1997). Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 207-236) have revealed a strong youth interest in gambling in Australia, as reflected in current participation levels, future intentions and attitudes. Implicit in much of this attitudinal research is that youth gambling is strongly influenced by the familial, social and cultural norms to which young people are exposed. In this paper, we investigate the hypothesis that gambling can be understood in terms of variations in economic socialization, namely, the way in which children learn about money, risk, and saving. A school survey of 505 adolescents (aged 15-17 years) showed that over 60% of adolescents were gambling annually and that 3.5% scored in the problematic range on the DSM-IV-J (Fisher, S.E. (1999). Addiction Research, 7, 509-538). More frequent gambling was associated with parental and peer gambling and pro-gambling attitudes, but unrelated to adolescents' attitudes towards economic concepts. Nevertheless, in partial support of the hypotheses, adolescents whose parents taught them about keeping to a budget, saving money, and maintaining their finances were less likely to express an interest in future gambling.

                Author and article information

                +44 (0)115 941 8418 , filipa.calado2013@my.ntu.ac.uk
                J Gambl Stud
                J Gambl Stud
                Journal of Gambling Studies
                Springer US (New York )
                2 July 2016
                2 July 2016
                : 33
                : 2
                : 397-424
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0727 0669, GRID grid.12361.37, International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, , Nottingham Trent University, ; Burton Street, Nottingham, NG1 4BU United Kingdom
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2220 8863, GRID grid.45349.3f, , ISCTE – Lisbon University Institute, ; Avenida das Forças Armadas, 1649-026 Lisbon, Portugal
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

                Health & Social care
                adolescence,gambling,problem gambling,gambling prevalence,adolescent gambling,youth gambling


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