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      Understanding the participation of breast screening among women born in predominantly Muslim countries living in Victoria, Australia from record-linkage data

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          Abstract

          Background

          Early detection of breast cancer can improve survival rates and decrease mortality rates. This study investigates whether there are significant differences in participation in breast screening among women born in Muslim countries compared to women born in Non-Muslim countries and Australia.

          Methods

          Screening data from January 1 st, 2000 to December 31 st, 2013 from the Breast Screen Victoria Registry (BSV) was linked with hospital records from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED). Countries having more than 50% of their population as Muslim were categorised as Muslim countries. Age adjusted rates were calculated for women born in Muslim and Non-Muslim countries and compared with the Australian age adjusted rates. Logistic regression assessed the association between screening status and other factors which include country of birth, marital status, age and socio-economic status.

          Results

          Women born in Muslim countries (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.68–0.72) and in other Non-Muslim countries (OR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.86–0.88) had lower odds of participation in breast screening than Australian born women. Women aged 60–64 years (OR = 1.42, 95%CI = 1.40–1.44) had higher odds of participation in the BreastScreen program than 50–54 age group.

          Conclusion

          This study provides valuable insights to understanding breast screening participation among women born in Muslim countries residing in Victoria. This population level study contributes to the broader knowledge of screening participation of women born in Muslim countries, an understudied population group in Australia and across the world. This study has implications for breast screening programs as it highlights the need for culturally sensitive approaches to support breast screening participation among women born in Muslim countries.

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          Most cited references15

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          Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: A cross-sectional study

          Background Late presentation of patients at advanced stages when little or no benefit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women. Recent global cancer statistics indicate rising global incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in populations of the developing countries that hitherto enjoyed low incidence of the disease. Worried by this prevailing situation and with recent data suggesting that health behavior may be influenced by level of awareness about breast cancer, a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Nigeria towards breast cancer. Methods One thousand community-dwelling women from a semi-urban neighborhood in Nigeria were recruited for the study in January and February 2000 using interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to elicit sociodemographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) version 8.2. Results Study participants had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Mean knowledge score was 42.3% and only 214 participants (21.4%) knew that breast cancer presents commonly as a painless breast lump. Practice of breast self examination (BSE) was low; only 432 participants (43.2%) admitted to carrying out the procedure in the past year. Only 91 study participants (9.1%) had clinical breast examination (CBE) in the past year. Women with higher level of education (X2 = 80.66, p < 0.0001) and those employed in professional jobs (X2 = 47.11, p < 0.0001) were significantly more knowledgeable about breast cancer. Participants with higher level of education were 3.6 times more likely to practice BSE (Odds ratio [OR] = 3.56, 95% Confidence interval [CI] 2.58–4.92). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that community-dwelling women in Nigeria have poor knowledge of breast cancer and minority practice BSE and CBE. In addition, education appears to be the major determinant of level of knowledge and health behavior among the study participants. We recommend the establishment and sustenance of institutional framework and policy guidelines that will enhance adequate and urgent dissemination of information about breast cancer to all women in Nigeria.
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            Religion and disparities: considering the influences of Islam on the health of American Muslims.

            Both theory and data suggest that religions shape the way individuals interpret and seek help for their illnesses. Yet, health disparities research has rarely examined the influence of a shared religion on the health of individuals from distinct minority communities. In this paper, we focus on Islam and American Muslims to outline the ways in which a shared religion may impact the health of a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse minority community. We use Kleinman's "cultural construction of clinical reality" as a theoretical framework to interpret the extant literature on American Muslim health. We then propose a research agenda that would extend current disparities research to include measures of religiosity, particularly among populations that share a minority religious affiliation. The research we propose would provide a fuller understanding of the relationships between religion and health among Muslim Americans and other minority communities and would thereby undergird efforts to reduce unwarranted health disparities.
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              Estimating attendance for breast cancer screening in ethnic groups in London

              Background Breast screening uptake in London is below the Government's target of 70% and we investigate whether ethnicity affects this. Information on the ethnicity for the individual women invited is unavailable, so we use an area-based method similar to that routinely used to derive a geographical measure for socioeconomic deprivation. Methods We extracted 742,786 observations on attendance for routine appointments between 2004 and 2007 collected by the London Quality Assurance Reference Centre. Each woman was assigned to a lower super output (LSOA) based on her postcode of residence. The proportions of the ethnic groups within each LSOA are known, so that the likelihood of a woman belonging to White, Black and Asian groups can be assigned. We investigated screening attendance by age group, socioeconomic deprivation using the Index of Deprivation 2004 income quintile, invitation type and breast screening service. Using logistic regression analysis we calculated odds ratios for attendance based on ethnic composition of the population, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, the invitation type and screening service. Results The unadjusted attendance odds ratios were high for the White population (OR: 3.34 95% CI [3.26-3.42]) and low for the Black population (0.13 [0.12-0.13]) and the Asian population (0.55 [0.53-0.56]). Multivariate adjustment reduced the differences, but the Black population remained below unity (0.47 [0.44-0.50]); while the White (1.30 [1.26-1.35]) and Asian populations (1.10 [1.05-1.15]) were higher. There was little difference in the attendance between age groups. Attendance was highest for the most affluent group and fell sharply with increasing deprivation. For invitation type, the routine recall was higher than the first call. There were wide variations in the attendance for different ethnic groups between the individual screening services. Conclusions Overall breast screening attendance is low in communities with large Black populations, suggesting the need to improve participation of Black women. Variations in attendance for the Asian population require further investigation at an individual screening service level.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                7 August 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 8
                : e0237341
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Centre for Health Policy, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
                [2 ] VCS Population Health, VCS Foundation, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
                [3 ] VICNISS, Melbourne Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
                Ravensburg-Weingarten University of Applied Sciences, GERMANY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: Tahira Yeasmeen and Margaret Kelaher certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest, or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. Julia Brotherton and Michael Malloy report the following affiliation or involvement in an organization or entity with a financial or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. Julia Brotherton is affiliated with VCS Foundation. Michael Malloy is affiliated with VICNISS, Melbourne Health and formerly with VCS Foundation.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4427-2465
                Article
                PONE-D-20-07562
                10.1371/journal.pone.0237341
                7413407
                32764828
                6fc3643c-0e23-4bec-bc03-c54774fdc558
                © 2020 Yeasmeen et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 4 April 2020
                : 23 July 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 15
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100012737, Department of Health and Human Services, State Government of Victoria;
                Award Recipient :
                JL and MM received grants for this project from the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services. Mk was not funded for this study. TY was funded by the University of Melbourne International student scholarship. Grant numbers are not available. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                People and Places
                Geographical Locations
                Oceania
                Australia
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Oncology
                Cancers and Neoplasms
                Breast Tumors
                Breast Cancer
                Social Sciences
                Anthropology
                Cultural Anthropology
                Religion
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Religion
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Cancer Detection and Diagnosis
                Cancer Screening
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Oncology
                Cancer Detection and Diagnosis
                Cancer Screening
                People and Places
                Population Groupings
                Age Groups
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Population Biology
                Population Metrics
                Death Rates
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Diagnostic Radiology
                Mammography
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Imaging Techniques
                Diagnostic Radiology
                Mammography
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Radiology and Imaging
                Diagnostic Radiology
                Mammography
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Public and Occupational Health
                Health Screening
                Custom metadata
                Data cannot be shared publicly because of the sensitive nature of individual health data. Data are available from the Department of Health and Human Services Victoria and the Breast Screen Victoria Registry for researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential data. As the data contains state owned and potentially sensitive and re-identifiable information,the Human Research ethics committee of the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) does not provide approval to allow the researchers to share the dataset beyond the named researchers. Data requests from qualified researchers may be sent to the Secretary at Victorian Department of Health and Human Services Human Research Ethics Committee at research.ethics@ 123456dhhs.vic.gov.au .

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