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      Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

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      Epidemiologic Reviews

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior.

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          Most cited references 177

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          The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)

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            Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts.

            Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behavioral problem, yet many fundamental aspects of NSSI remain unknown. This case series study reports on the diagnostic correlates of adolescents with a recent history of NSSI and examines the relation between NSSI and suicide attempts. Data are from clinical interviews with 89 adolescents admitted to an adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit who engaged in NSSI in the previous 12 months. Results revealed that 87.6% of adolescents engaging in NSSI met criteria for a DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (M=3.0, S.D.=2.2, range=0 to 8 diagnoses), including externalizing (62.9%), internalizing (51.7%), and substance use (59.6%) disorders. Most adolescents assessed also met criteria for an Axis II personality disorder (67.3%). Overall, 70% of adolescents engaging in NSSI reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 55% reported multiple attempts. Characteristics of NSSI associated with making suicide attempts included a longer history of NSSI, use of a greater number of methods, and absence of physical pain during NSSI. These findings demonstrate the diagnostic heterogeneity of adolescents engaging in NSSI, highlight the significant overlap between NSSI and suicide attempts, and provide a point of departure for future research aimed at elucidating the relations between non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury.
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              Adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior.

              This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of this review, clinical and public health approaches to the reduction in youth suicide and recommendations for further research will be discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Epidemiologic Reviews
                Epidemiologic Reviews
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0193-936X
                1478-6729
                May 14 2008
                May 14 2008
                : 30
                : 1
                : 133-154
                Article
                10.1093/epirev/mxn002
                2576496
                18653727
                © 2008

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