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      Thy1 Glomerulonephritis Induced in Young Lewis Rats Accelerates Age-Related Glomerulosclerosis

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          Abstract

          Age-related and disease-induced glomerulosclerosis (GS) in rats have both been well defined in a number of strains and experimental models, but the inter-relationship between the two is not clear. The present study was undertaken to compare the pattern of glomerular injury in these two types of GS. One- and two-shot Thy1 glomerulonephritis (GN) was induced at 2 months of age and followed for 12 months. At 12 months histological injury in proteinuric rats was characterized by segmental hyaline lesions. Two-shot Thy1 GN resulted in accelerated, but morphologically identical injury at 8 months. Histological lesions predictive of subsequent accelerated GS were evaluated at 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. In this regard, glomerular hypercellularity, rather than hypertrophy or matrix increase, was the most consistent histological index of later accelerated disease. The profibrotic cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β<sub>1</sub> and -β<sub>3</sub> were localized distinctly to segmental hyaline lesions, but not to areas of matrix increase within the glomerular tuft. This study reveals that GS after Thy1 GN represents acceleration of an age-related disease, presents evidence for use of prolonged glomerular hypercellularity as the best histological index of future disease progression, and correlates the key lesion of GS in these animals, the segmental hyaline lesion, with the presence of TGF-β peptides.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Natural inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta protects against scarring in experimental kidney disease.

          The central pathological feature of human kidney disease that leads to kidney failure is the accumulation of extracellular matrix in glomeruli. Overexpression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) underlies the accumulation of pathological matrix in experimental glomerulonephritis. Administration of an antibody raised against TGF-beta to glomerulonephritic rats suppresses glomerular matrix production and prevents matrix accumulation in the injured glomeruli. One of the matrix components induced by TGF-beta, the proteoglycan decorin, can bind TGF-beta and neutralize its biological activity, so decorin may be a natural regulator of TGF-beta (refs 3, 4). We tested whether decorin could antagonize the action of TGF-beta in vivo using the experimental glomerulonephritis model. We report here that administration of decorin inhibits the increased production of extracellular matrix and attenuates manifestations of disease, confirming our hypothesis. On the basis of our results, decorin may eventually prove to be clinically useful in diseases associated with overproduction of TGF-beta.
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            Transforming Growth Factor-β in Renal Disease

            An extensive number of animal and clinical studies indicate that transforming growth factors-β (TGF-βs) play an important role in inflammatory and fibrotic diseases, including renal fibrosis. Recent mouse models harboring genetically engineered alterations in TGF-β pathways reveal complicated mechanisms of regulation of TGF-β activity in vivo. The purpose of this review is to present recent advances relevant to our understanding of the TGF-β-signaling system in renal physiology and pathophysiology.
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              Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy

              Nephropathy in patients with type I and II diabetes mellitus is a rapidly increasing problem worldwide. Studies using both glomerular and tubular cells have delineated some of the consequences induced by acute hyperglycemia. In vitro studies have clearly demonstrated that exposure of cultured renal cells, such as glomerular mesangial cells and proximal tubular epithelial cells, to elevated glucose concentrations, may alter cell proliferation and/or extracellular matrix turnover. The latter is effected both directly and indirectly by the alteration of cytokine generation. Furthermore, these in vitro studies have allowed detailed examination of the mechanisms by which exposure of these cells to high ambient glucose concentrations may alter cell function. Extension of these studies to the experimental in vivo situation has confirmed most of the in vitro findings. Important insights gained from models of type I diabetes (i.e. streptocotocin–induced diabetes) as well as type II diabetes (i.e. Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats and obese Zucker rats) include: (1) The demonstration that increased glomerular cell proliferation and renal matrix accumulation, driven by TGF–β and/or PDGF, occur in streptocotocin–induced diabetes, yet that nephropathy in these rats does not progress to renal failure. (2) The demonstration that prolonged mild type II diabetes does induce morphological changes characteristic of pre–clinical diabetic nephropathy in GK–rats but does not result in albuminuria or progressive renal disease. (3) The demonstration that the association of type II diabetes with hyperlipidemia in obese Zucker rats results in early podocyte damage and subsequent progression to glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial damage, and renal insufficiency. Identification of the mediators involved in the above processes and in particular of the conditions that will determine progression of subclinical morphological changes to overt nephropathy and renal failure will likely result in future novel therapeutic approaches to diabetic nephropathy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2001
                2001
                25 April 2001
                : 88
                : 1
                : 57-64
                Affiliations
                Departments of aMedicine and Therapeutics and bPathology, University of Aberdeen and cSchool of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK
                Article
                45960 Nephron 2001;88:57–64
                10.1159/000045960
                11340352
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 30, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45960
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