Bleeding due to impaired primary haemostasis is common in uraemia. However, thromboembolic episodes are also a clinical problem in dialysis patients. Platelet reactivity to shear stress (haemostasis, H1 and H2), exposure to collagen fibre (thrombus growth) and coagulation of flowing blood (clotting time, CT1 and CT2) were measured in non-anticoagulated blood samples taken immediately before and 18-24 h after haemodialysis (n = 26) and from patients maintained on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, n = 30). H1 (p < 0.001), H2 (p < 0.01), percent thrombus growth rate (p < 0.03), CT1 (p < 0.01 and CT2 (p < 0.05) were restored towards normal after haemodialysis. Results obtained in the CAPD patients demonstrated that the mean values for formation of the haemostatic plug lay between the pre- and posthaemodialysis values; however, CT1 (p < 0.01) and CT2 (p < 0.05) were prolonged in CAPD compared with values after haemodialysis. These data, which indicate platelet function from non-anticoagulated blood and coagulation under flow conditions, (1) confirm that there is impaired haemostasis in uraemia; (2) demonstrate an improvement in haemostasis after haemodialysis; (3) show that peritoneal dialysis results in a haemostatic profile which falls between the pre-and posthaemodialysis pattern, and (4) show that neither dialysis modality returns haemostasis to normal.