+1 Recommend
1 collections
      Call for Papers in Kidney and Blood Pressure ResearchKidney Function and Omics Science

      Submission Deadline: December 20, 2023

      Submit now

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      The Importance of Associated Extra-Renal Vascular Disease on the Outcome of Patients with Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) is a disease of ageing. It is usually a manifestation of widespread vascular disease and although it may be symptomless, many patients with ARVD present with the effects of extra-renal vascular disease, such as peripheral vascular (PVD), coronary heart (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease. ARVD is a common cause of hypertension and chronic renal failure (CRF), and it is one of the most common renal diagnoses in elderly patients accepted on to dialysis programmes with end-stage renal failure (ESRF). The cause of renal impairment in these patients is still a matter of debate. Patients with ARVD have a high mortality, especially those with renal failure. In this review we examine the relationships between ARVD and co-morbid extra-renal vascular disease, and the impact of these associated vascular pathologies upon renal functional and mortality outcomes is considered. The latest evidence concerning the likely pathogenesis of renal dysfunction in patients with ARVD is also reviewed.

          Related collections

          Most cited references8

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Arterial stenting and balloon angioplasty in ostial atherosclerotic renovascular disease: a randomised trial.

          Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for ostial atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis has poor results. Angioplasty with stent placement (PTAS) may be more effective. We undertook a randomised prospective study to compare PTA with PTAS in patients with ostial atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis. Patients with ostial atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis were assigned to receive PTA or PTAS. Secondary PTAS was allowed if PTA failed immediately or during 6 months' follow-up. Analysis was by intention to treat. 42 patients were assigned PTA and 43 were assigned PTAS, but one patient in the PTAS group was excluded from the study. Primary success rate (<50% residual stenosis) of PTA was 57% (24 patients) compared with 88% (37 patients) for PTAS (difference between groups 31% [95% CI 12-50]). Complications were similar. At 6 months, the primary patency rate was 29% (12 patients) for PTA, and 75% (30 patients) for PTAS (46% [24-68]). Restenosis after a successful primary procedure occurred in 48% of patients for PTA and 14% for PTAS (34% [11-58]). 12 patients underwent secondary stenting for primary or late failure of PTA within the follow-up period: success was similar to that of primary PTAS. Evaluation based on intention to treat showed no difference in clinical results at six months for PTA or PTAS. PTAS is a better technique than PTA to achieve vessel patency in ostial atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis. Primary PTAS and primary PTA plus PTAS as rescue therapy have similar outcomes. However, the burden of reintervention after PTA outweighs the potential saving in stents, so primary PTAS is a better approach to use.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Risk of atrophy in kidneys with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

            The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for renal atrophy among kidneys with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS). Participants with at least one ARAS were followed prospectively with duplex scans performed every six months. Renal atrophy was defined as a reduction in renal length of greater than 1 cm. A total of 204 kidneys in 122 subjects were followed for a mean of 33 months. The two-year cumulative incidence (CI) of renal atrophy was 5.5%, 11.7%, and 20.8% in kidneys with a baseline renal artery disease classification of normal, or = 60% stenosis, respectively (P = 0.009, log rank test). Other baseline factors associated with a high risk of renal atrophy included a systolic blood pressure > 180 mm Hg (2-year CL = 35%, P = 0.01), a renal artery peak systolic velocity > 400 cm/second (2-year CI = 32%, P = 0.02), and a renal cortical end diastolic velocity < or = 5 cm/second (2-year CI = 29%, P = 0.046). The number of kidneys demonstrating atrophy per participant was correlated with elevations in the serum creatinine concentration (P = 0.03). In patients with ARAS, there is a significant risk of renal atrophy among kidneys exposed to elevated systolic blood pressure and among those with high-grade ARAS and low renal cortical blood flow velocity as assessed by renal duplex scanning. The occurrence of renal atrophy is well-correlated with changes in the serum creatinine concentration.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              A prospective study of the determinants of renal functional outcome and mortality in atherosclerotic renovascular disease.

              Atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) commonly causes renal failure and hypertension and is accompanied by high cardiovascular comorbidity and mortality. Interrelationships between these factors remain poorly understood. Patients with ARVD presenting to a single center between 1995 and 1999 were followed up, with prospective collection of clinical and biochemical data. Fifty men and 48 women were identified. Mean age at entry was 68.7 +/- 8.3 (SD) years, and baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) was 35.5 +/- 20.7 mL/min. During follow-up (27.7 +/- 18.7 months), 10 patients required dialysis therapy, 11 patients underwent revascularization, and 35 patients (36%) died. Patients in whom renal function deteriorated during follow-up (n = 61) had similar ages, baseline CrCls, blood pressures, and comorbidities compared to patients with stable function. Mortality (55.7% versus 27.0%; P < 0.01) and proteinuria (protein, 1.3 +/- 1.6 versus 0.3 +/- 0.4 g/24 h; P < 0.001) were greater in patients with declining function. Baseline renal function was not significantly related to blood pressure, proteinuria, or change in renal function during follow-up (change in CrCl), but patients with a lower CrCl had increased mortality. There was no increase in cardiovascular comorbidity in groups with lower renal function. Patients with the most severe anatomic ARVD had worse hypertension and increased mortality, but severity of ARVD was unrelated to extent of renal dysfunction and proteinuria at baseline. Lack of correlation between renal artery anatomy and baseline renal function or functional outcome and correlation between renal functional outcome and proteinuria suggest that renal parenchymal damage is a major determinant of renal dysfunction and outcome in ARVD. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                February 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 93
                : 2
                : c51-c57
                Departments of aRenal Medicine and bRenal Radiology, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK
                68521 Nephron Clin Pract 2003;93:c51–c57
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 08 April 2002
                : 21 October 2002
                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 46, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/68521
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/68521
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Peripheral vascular disease,Coronary heart disease,Cerebrovascular disease,Atherosclerotic renovascular disease


                Comment on this article