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      Prognostic value of chromogranin A in patients with GET/NEN in the pancreas and the small intestine

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the chromogranin A (CgA) determination in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the digestive system and to analyse the association between concentration of the marker and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Serum concentrations of CgA were determined before the treatment in 131 patients with NENs, including patients with tumours located in the pancreas, the small intestine, caecum, appendix and in the colon. No significant associations were identified in CgA concentrations between the control group and patients with NENs in appendix and colon. In patients with NENs of the pancreas and NENs of the small intestine and caecum, increased CgA levels were associated with lymph node involvement, distant metastases and a baseline liver involvement. Analyses revealed significantly higher CgA concentrations in patients with active disease compared to those without symptoms of NEN. In patients with NENs of the pancreas, CgA concentration was correlated with tumour grade and Ki67. Significantly higher CgA levels were also found in patients who died compared to those who lived. Analyses of PFS and OS revealed that CgA concentration was not a prognostic factor in patients with NENs of the pancreas. In patients with NENs of the small intestine and caecum, increased CgA concentrations are independent, poor prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. In conclusion, in patients with NENs in pancreas, CgA levels are associated with disease progression, while in patients with NENs in small intestine and caecum, its concentration is a predictive indicator for PFS and OS.

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          Most cited references32

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          Chromogranin A--biological function and clinical utility in neuro endocrine tumor disease.

          Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a form of cancer that differ from other neoplasia in that they synthesize, store, and secrete peptides, e.g., chromogranin A (CgA) and amines. A critical issue is late diagnosis due to failure to identify symptoms or to establish the biochemical diagnosis. We review here the utility of CgA measurement in NETs and describe its biological role and the clinical value of its measurement. Literature review and analysis of the utility of plasma/serum CgA measurements in NETs and other diseases. CgA is a member of the chromogranin family; its transcription and peptide processing are well characterized, but its precise function remains unknown. Levels are detectable in the circulation but vary substantially (approximately 25%) depending on which assay is used. Serum and plasma measurements are concordant. CgA is elevated in approximately 90% of gut NETs and correlates with tumor burden and recurrence. Highest values are noted in ileal NETs and gastrointestinal NETs associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Both functioning and nonfunctioning pancreatic NETs have elevated values. CgA is more frequently elevated in well-differentiated tumors compared to poorly differentiated NETs. Effective treatment is often associated with decrease in CgA levels. Proton pump inhibitors falsely increase CgA, but levels normalize with therapy cessation. CgA is currently the best available biomarker for the diagnosis of NETs. It is critical to establish diagnosis and has some utility in predicting disease recurrence, outcome, and efficacy of therapy. Measurement of plasma CgA is mandatory for the effective diagnosis and management of NET disease.
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            Clinical presentation, recurrence, and survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors: results from a prospective institutional database.

            The rarity of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) has contributed to a paucity of large epidemiologic studies of patients with this condition. We characterized presenting symptoms and clinical outcomes in a prospective database of over 900 patients with NET. We used data from patient questionnaires and the medical record to characterize presenting symptoms, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). The majority of patients in this database had gastroenteropancreatic NET. The median duration of patient-reported symptoms before diagnosis was 3.4 months; 19.5% reported durations from 1 to 5 years, 2.5% from 5 to 10 years, and 2% >10 years. The median DFS among patients with resected small bowel NET or pancreatic NET (panNET) was 5.8 and 4.1 years respectively. After correcting for left truncation bias, the median OS was 7.9 years for advanced small bowel NET and 3.9 years for advanced panNET. Chromogranin A (CGA) above twice the upper limit of normal was associated with shorter survival times (hazard ratios 2.8 (1.9, 4.0) P<0.001) in patients with metastatic disease, regardless of tumor subtype. Our data suggest that while most NET patients are diagnosed soon after symptom onset, prolonged symptom duration before diagnosis is a prominent feature of this disease. Though limited to observations from a large referral center, our observations confirm the prognostic value of CGA and suggest that median survival durations may be shorter than that reported in other institutional databases.
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              ENETS Consensus Guidelines for the Standards of Care in Neuroendocrine Tumors: Biochemical Markers

              Biomarkers have been the mainstay in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) over the last few decades. In the beginning, secretory products from a variety of subtypes of NETs were regarded as biomarkers to follow during diagnosis and treatment: serotonin for small intestinal (SI) NETs, and gastrin and insulin for pancreatic NETs. However, it became evident that a large number of NETs were so-called nonfunctioning tumors without secreting substances that caused hormone-related symptoms. Therefore, it was necessary to develop so-called “general tumor markers.” The most important ones so far have been chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Chromogranin A is the most important general biomarker for most NETs with a sensitivity and specificity somewhere between 60 and 90%. NSE has been a relevant biomarker for patients with high-grade tumors, particularly lung and gastrointestinal tract tumors. Serotonin and the breakdown product urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (U-5-HIAA) is still an important marker for diagnosing and follow-up of SI NETs. Recently, 5-HIAA in plasma has been analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorometric detection and has shown good agreement with U-5-HIAA analysis. In the future, we will see new tests including circulating tumor cells, circulating DNA and mRNA. Recently, a NET test has been developed analyzing gene transcripts in circulating blood. Preliminary data indicate high sensitivity and specificity for NETs. However, its precise role has to be validated in prospective randomized controlled trials which are ongoing right now.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                EC
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                2049-3614
                June 2018
                03 May 2018
                : 7
                : 6
                : 803-810
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Diagnostics Laboratory of Tumor Markers, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute – Oncology Center, Warsaw, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute – Oncology Center, Warsaw, Poland
                [3 ]The Faculty of Medical Sciences University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
                [4 ]Department of Clinical Surgery Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute – Oncology Center, Warsaw, Poland
                [5 ]Department of Pathology Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute – Oncology Center, Warsaw, Poland
                [6 ]Department of Nutrition, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute – Oncology Center Warsaw, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to M Kowalska: mkowalska@ 123456coi.pl

                *(M Fuksiewicz and M Kowalska contributed equally to this work)

                Article
                EC180059
                10.1530/EC-18-0059
                5987360
                29724794
                6ffc6cd2-7bfe-4531-a870-c8b3e169db3e
                © 2018 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 27 April 2018
                : 03 May 2018
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                Categories
                Research

                chromogranin a,neuroendocrine neoplasms,prognostic factor,pancreas,small intestine

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