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      Prediction of emergence agitation using withdrawal reaction following rocuronium injection in preschool-aged patients undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy: a preliminary exploratory observational trial

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          The development of emergence agitation (EA) is associated with several factors including age, preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain, anesthesia method, and surgery type. No studies have investigated whether the withdrawal reaction following rocuronium injection can predict the occurrence of EA. Therefore, we investigated this relationship in preschool-aged children undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy, and which grade of withdrawal reaction is appropriate for identifying patients at risk of experiencing EA.


          A total of 40 patients were enrolled in this study. During anesthesia induction, the withdrawal reaction after loss of consciousness following rocuronium injection was assessed using a 4-point scale. After surgery, EA was assessed using the Watcha scale.


          There was a correlation between withdrawal reaction and EA on admission to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Patients with a severe withdrawal reaction (grade 3) showed a significantly higher incidence of severe EA requiring medication on admission to the PACU.


          The findings of this preliminary exploratory observational study suggest that it is possible for withdrawal movement following rocuronium injection during anesthesia induction to reflect pain sensitivity of pediatric patients, which in turn may be useful in identifying those at risk of severe EA on admission to the PACU among preschool children undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy. Further studies with a larger sample size are required to validate these findings. The exact correlation between pain reaction following rocuronium injection and postoperative pain or pain-related phenomenon should be elucidated.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Preoperative anxiety and emergence delirium and postoperative maladaptive behaviors.

          Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the clinical phenomena of preoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, and postoperative maladaptive behavioral changes were closely related. We examined this issue using data obtained by our laboratory over the past 6 years. Only children who underwent surgery and general anesthesia using sevoflurane/O(2)/N(2)O and who did not receive midazolam were recruited. Children's anxiety was assessed preoperatively with the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS), emergence delirium was assessed in the postanesthesia care unit, and behavioral changes were assessed with the Post Hospital Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ) on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14. Regression analysis showed that the odds of having marked symptoms of emergence delirium increased by 10% for each increment of 10 points in the child's state anxiety score (mYPAS). The odds ratio of having new-onset postoperative maladaptive behavior changes was 1.43 for children with marked emergence status as compared with children with no symptoms of emergence delirium. A 10-point increase in state anxiety scores led to a 12.5% increase in the odds that the child would have a new-onset maladaptive behavioral change after the surgery. This finding is highly significant to practicing clinicians, who can now predict the development of adverse postoperative phenomena, such as emergence delirium and postoperative behavioral changes, based on levels of preoperative anxiety.
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            Emergence delirium in children: many questions, few answers.

            The introduction of a new generation of inhaled anesthetics into pediatric clinical practice has been associated with a greater incidence of ED, a short-lived, but troublesome clinical phenomenon of uncertain etiology. A variety of anesthesia-, surgery-, patient-, and adjunct medication-related factors have been suggested to play a potential role in the development of such an event. Restless behavior upon emergence causes not only discomfort to the child, but also makes the caregivers and parents feel unhappy with the quality of recovery from anesthesia. Although the severity of agitation varies, it often requires additional nursing care, as well as treatment with analgesics or sedatives, which may delay discharge from hospital. To reduce the incidence of this adverse event, it is advisable to identify children at risk and take preventive measures, such as reducing preoperative anxiety, removing postoperative pain, and providing a quiet, stress-free environment for postanesthesia recovery. More clinical trials are needed to elucidate the cause as well as provide effective treatment.
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              Individual differences in pain sensitivity: measurement, causation, and consequences.

              Not only are some clinical conditions experienced as more painful than others, but the variability in pain ratings of patients with the same disease or trauma is enormous. Available evidence indicates that to a large extent these differences reflect individual differences in pain sensitivity. Pain sensitivity can be estimated only through the use of well-controlled experimental pain stimuli. Such estimates show substantial heritability but equally important environmental effects. The genetic and environmental factors that influence pain sensitivity differ across pain modalities. For example, genetic factors that influence cold pressor pain have little impact on phasic heat pain and visa versa. Individual differences in pain sensitivity can complicate diagnosis, among other reasons because low sensitivity to pain may delay self-referral. Inclusion of patients with reduced pain sensitivity can attenuate treatment effects in clinical trials, unless controlled for. Measures of pain sensitivity are predictive of acute postoperative pain, and there is preliminary evidence that heightened pain sensitivity increases risk for future chronic pain conditions. At this time, however, it is unclear which experimental pain modalities should be used as predictors for future pain conditions. Careful assessment of each individual's pain sensitivity may become invaluable for the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of pain. Large individual differences in pain sensitivity can complicate diagnosis and pain treatment and can confound clinical trials. Pain sensitivity may also be of great importance for the development of clinical pain. Thus, assessment of pain sensitivity may be relevant for the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of acute and chronic pain.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                26 January 2018
                : 14
                : 189-194
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam
                [3 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yun Jeong Chae, Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, Worldcup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 31 219 5576, Fax +82 31 219 5579, Email yjchae06@ 123456aumc.ac.kr
                © 2018 Kim et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                withdrawal movement, emergence agitation, rocuronium, prediction


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