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      Paclitaxel-loaded star-shaped copolymer nanoparticles for enhanced malignant melanoma chemotherapy against multidrug resistance

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          Abstract

          Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most dangerous type of skin cancer with annually increasing incidence and death rates. However, chemotherapy for MM is restricted by low topical drug concentration and multidrug resistance. In order to surmount the limitation and to enhance the therapeutic effect on MM, a new nanoformulation of paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded cholic acid (CA)-functionalized star-shaped poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) nanoparticles (NPs) (shortly PTX-loaded CA-PLGA-TPGS NPs) was fabricated by a modified method of nanoprecipitation. The particle size, zeta potential, morphology, drug release profile, drug encapsulation efficiency, and loading content of PTX-loaded NPs were detected. As shown by confocal laser scanning, NPs loaded with coumarin-6 were internalized by human melanoma cell line A875. The cellular uptake efficiency of CA-PLGA-TPGS NPs was higher than those of PLGA NPs and PLGA-TPGS NPs. The antitumor effects of PTX-loaded NPs were evaluated by the MTT assay in vitro and by a xenograft tumor model in vivo, demonstrating that star-shaped PTX-loaded CA-PLGA-TPGS NPs were significantly superior to commercial PTX formulation Taxol ®. Such drug delivery nanocarriers are potentially applicable to the improvement of clinical MM therapy.

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          Most cited references 47

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          PLGA nanoparticles containing various anticancer agents and tumour delivery by EPR effect.

          As mortality due to cancer continues to rise, advances in nanotechnology have significantly become an effective approach for achieving efficient drug targeting to tumour tissues by circumventing all the shortcomings of conventional chemotherapy. During the past decade, the importance of polymeric drug-delivery systems in oncology has grown exponentially. In this context, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a widely used polymer for fabricating 'nanoparticles' because of biocompatibility, long-standing track record in biomedical applications and well-documented utility for sustained drug release, and hence has been the centre of focus for developing drug-loaded nanoparticles for cancer therapy. Such PLGA nanoparticles have also been used to develop proteins and peptides for nanomedicine, and nanovaccines, as well as a nanoparticle-based drug- and gene-delivery system for cancer therapy, and nanoantigens and growth factors. These drug-loaded nanoparticles extravasate through the tumour vasculature, delivering their payload into the cells by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, thereby increasing their therapeutic effect. Ongoing research about drug-loaded nanoparticles and their delivery by the EPR effect to the tumour tissues has been elucidated in this review with clarity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Cholic acid-functionalized nanoparticles of star-shaped PLGA-vitamin E TPGS copolymer for docetaxel delivery to cervical cancer.

            We developed a system of nanoparticles (NPs) of cholic acid functionalized, star-shaped block copolymer consisting of PLGA and vitamin E TPGS for sustained and controlled delivery of docetaxel for treatment of cervical cancer, which demonstrated superior in vitro and in vivo performance in comparison with the drug-loaded PLGA NPs and the linear PLGA-b-TPGS copolymer NPs. The star-shaped block copolymer CA-PLGA-b-TPGS of three branch arms was synthesized through the core-first approach and characterized by (1)H NMR, GPC and TGA. The drug- or coumarin 6-loaded NPs were prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation technique and then characterized in terms of size and size distribution, surface morphology and surface charge, drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release profile and physical state of the encapsulated drug. The CA-PLGA-b-TPGS NPs were found to have the highest cellular uptake efficiency, the highest antitumor efficacy compared with PLGA-b-TPGS NPs and PLGA NPs. The results suggest that such a star-shaped copolymer CA-PLGA-b-TPGS could be used as a new molecular biomaterial for drug delivery of high efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs with vitamin E TPGS by porous PLGA nanoparticles for enhanced chemotherapy against multi-drug resistance.

              We report a strategy to make use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle (PLGA NPs) for co-delivery of docetaxel (DTX) as a model anticancer drug together with vitamin E TPGS. The latter plays a dual role as a pore-forming agent in the nanoparticles that may result in smaller particle size, higher drug encapsulation efficiency and faster drug release, and also as a bioactive agent that could inhibit P-glycoprotein to overcome multi-drug resistance of the cancer cells, The DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of 0, 10, 20 and 40% TPGS were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method and then characterized for their size and size distribution, surface morphology, physical status and encapsulation efficiency of the drug in the NPs. All four NPs were found of size ranged 100-120 nm and EE ranged 85-95% at drug loading level around 10%. The in vitro evaluation showed that the 48 h IC50 values of the free DTX and the DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of 0, 10, 20% TPGS were 2.619 and 0.474, 0.040, 0.009 μg/mL respectively, which means that the PLGA NPs formulation could be 5.57 fold effective than the free DTX and that the DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of 10 or 20% TPGS further be 11.85 and 52.7 fold effective than the DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of no TPGS (therefore, 66.0 and 284 fold effective than the free DTX). Xenograft tumor model and immunohistological staining analysis further confirmed the advantages of the strategy of co-delivery of anticancer drugs with TPGS by PLGA NPs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                06 March 2017
                : 11
                : 659-668
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Baoan Shenzhen Affiliated to Southern Medical University
                [2 ]Core Laboratory, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hui Liu, Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Baoan Shenzhen Affiliated to Southern Medical University, Shenzhen 518101, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 755 2778 8311, Email huiliu22@ 123456163.com
                Ni Xie, Core Laboratory, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518035, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 755 8300 3435, Email kejiaoke100@ 123456163.com
                Article
                dddt-11-659
                10.2147/DDDT.S127328
                5345981
                28293102
                © 2017 Su et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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