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      Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Autophagy in Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

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          Abstract

          Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains a major complication of liver resection, transplantation, and hemorrhagic shock. Although the mechanisms that contribute to hepatic I/R are complex and diverse involving the interaction of cell injury in hepatocytes, immune cells, and endothelium, mitochondrial dysfunction is a cardinal event culminating in hepatic reperfusion injury. Mitochondrial autophagy, so-called mitophagy, is a key cellular process that regulates mitochondrial homeostasis and eliminates damaged mitochondria in a timely manner. Growing evidence accumulates that I/R injury is attributed to defective mitophagy. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of autophagy and its role in hepatic I/R injury and highlight the various therapeutic approaches that have been studied to ameliorate injury.

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          Most cited references 104

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          Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury: effects on the liver sinusoidal milieu.

          Ischemia-reperfusion injury is an important cause of liver damage occurring during surgical procedures including hepatic resection and liver transplantation, and represents the main underlying cause of graft dysfunction post-transplantation. Cellular and biochemical processes occurring during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion are diverse and complex, and include the deregulation of the healthy phenotype of all liver cellular components. Nevertheless, a significant part of these processes are still unknown or unclear. The present review aims at summarizing the current knowledge in liver ischemia-reperfusion, but specifically focusing on liver cell phenotype and paracrine interaction deregulations. Moreover, the most updated therapeutic strategies including pharmacological, genetic and surgical interventions, as well as some of the scientific controversies in the field will be described. Finally, the importance of considering the subclinical situation of liver grafts when translating basic knowledge to the bedside is discussed. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Autophagy reduces acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and steatosis in mice.

            Alcohol abuse is a major cause of liver injury. The pathologic features of alcoholic liver disease develop over prolonged periods, yet the cellular defense mechanisms against the detrimental effects of alcohol are not well understood. We investigated whether macroautophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular mechanism that is commonly activated in response to stress, could protect liver cells from ethanol toxicity. Mice were acutely given ethanol by gavage. The effects of ethanol on primary hepatocytes and hepatic cell lines were also studied in vitro. Ethanol-induced macroautophagy in the livers of mice and cultured cells required ethanol metabolism, generation of reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Suppression of macroautophagy with pharmacologic agents or small interfering RNAs significantly increased hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury; macroautophagy therefore protected cells from the toxic effects of ethanol. Macroautophagy induced by ethanol seemed to be selective for damaged mitochondria and accumulated lipid droplets, but not long-lived proteins, which could account for its protective effects. Increasing macroautophagy pharmacologically reduced hepatotoxicity and steatosis associated with acute ethanol exposure. Macroautophagy protects against ethanol-induced toxicity in livers of mice. Reagents that modify macroautophagy might be developed as therapeutics for patients with alcoholic liver disease. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Functions of autophagy in normal and diseased liver.

              Autophagy has emerged as a critical lysosomal pathway that maintains cell function and survival through the degradation of cellular components such as organelles and proteins. Investigations specifically employing the liver or hepatocytes as experimental models have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of autophagic regulation and function. The diverse cellular functions of autophagy, along with unique features of the liver and its principal cell type the hepatocyte, suggest that the liver is highly dependent on autophagy for both normal function and to prevent the development of disease states. However, instances have also been identified in which autophagy promotes pathological changes such as the development of hepatic fibrosis. Considerable evidence has accumulated that alterations in autophagy are an underlying mechanism of a number of common hepatic diseases including toxin-, drug- and ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury, fatty liver, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles that autophagy plays in normal hepatic physiology and pathophysiology with the intent of furthering the development of autophagy-based therapies for human liver diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2015
                6 December 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Sung-Hoon Kim

                Article
                10.1155/2015/183469
                4684839
                Copyright © 2015 Kristina L. Go et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Review Article

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