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      Biomimetic Architectures for Peripheral Nerve Repair: A Review of Biofabrication Strategies

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          Electrospinning of nano/micro scale poly(L-lactic acid) aligned fibers and their potential in neural tissue engineering.

          Efficacy of aligned poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nano/micro fibrous scaffolds for neural tissue engineering is described and their performance with random PLLA scaffolds is compared as well in this study. Perfectly aligned PLLA fibrous scaffolds were fabricated by an electrospinning technique under optimum condition and the diameter of the electrospun fibers can easily be tailored by adjusting the concentration of polymer solution. As the structure of PLLA scaffold was intended for neural tissue engineering, its suitability was evaluated in vitro using neural stem cells (NSCs) as a model cell line. Cell morphology, differentiation and neurite outgrowth were studied by various microscopic techniques. The results show that the direction of NSC elongation and its neurite outgrowth is parallel to the direction of PLLA fibers for aligned scaffolds. No significant changes were observed on the cell orientation with respect to the fiber diameters. However, the rate of NSC differentiation was higher for PLLA nanofibers than that of micro fibers and it was independent of the fiber alignment. Based on the experimental results, the aligned nanofibrous PLLA scaffold could be used as a potential cell carrier in neural tissue engineering.
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            The effect of pore size on cell adhesion in collagen-GAG scaffolds.

            The biological activity of scaffolds used in tissue engineering applications hypothetically depends on the density of available ligands, scaffold sites at which specific cell binding occurs. Ligand density is characterized by the composition of the scaffold, which defines the surface density of ligands, and by the specific surface area of the scaffold, which defines the total surface of the structure exposed to the cells. It has been previously shown that collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) scaffolds used for studies of skin regeneration were inactive when the mean pore size was either lower than 20 microm or higher than 120 microm (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 86(3) (1989) 933). To study the relationship between cell attachment and viability in scaffolds and the scaffold structure, CG scaffolds with a constant composition and solid volume fraction (0.005), but with four different pore sizes corresponding to four levels of specific surface area were manufactured using a lyophilization technique. MC3T3-E1 mouse clonal osteogenic cells were seeded onto the four scaffold types and maintained in culture. At the experimental end point (24 or 48 h), the remaining viable cells were counted to determine the percent cell attachment. A significant difference in viable cell attachment was observed in scaffolds with different mean pore sizes after 24 and 48 h; however, there was no significant change in cell attachment between 24 and 48 h for any group. The fraction of viable cells attached to the CG scaffold decreased with increasing mean pore size, increasing linearly (R2 = 0.95, 0.91 at 24 and 48 h, respectively) with the specific surface area of the scaffold. The strong correlation between the scaffold specific surface area and cell attachment indicates that cell attachment and viability are primarily influenced by scaffold specific surface area over this range (95.9-150.5 microm) of pore sizes for MC3T3 cells.
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              Nanofibers and their applications in tissue engineering

              Developing scaffolds that mimic the architecture of tissue at the nanoscale is one of the major challenges in the field of tissue engineering. The development of nanofibers has greatly enhanced the scope for fabricating scaffolds that can potentially meet this challenge. Currently, there are three techniques available for the synthesis of nanofibers: electrospinning, self-assembly, and phase separation. Of these techniques, electrospinning is the most widely studied technique and has also demonstrated the most promising results in terms of tissue engineering applications. The availability of a wide range of natural and synthetic biomaterials has broadened the scope for development of nanofibrous scaffolds, especially using the electrospinning technique. The three dimensional synthetic biodegradable scaffolds designed using nanofibers serve as an excellent framework for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, nanofibers, irrespective of their method of synthesis, have been used as scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering (including bone, cartilage, ligament, and skeletal muscle), skin tissue engineering, vascular tissue engineering, neural tissue engineering, and as carriers for the controlled delivery of drugs, proteins, and DNA. This review summarizes the currently available techniques for nanofiber synthesis and discusses the use of nanofibers in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Healthcare Materials
                Adv. Healthcare Mater.
                Wiley
                21922640
                April 2018
                April 2018
                January 19 2018
                : 7
                : 8
                : 1701164
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Complex Tissue Regeneration; MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine; Maastricht University; Universiteitssingel 40 Maastricht 6229 ER The Netherlands
                [2 ]Tissue Regeneration Department; MIRA Institute; University of Twente; Drienerlolaan 5 Enschede 7522 NB The Netherlands
                [3 ]BioRobotics Institute; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna; Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34 Pontedera 56025 Italy
                [4 ]Translational Neural Engineering Laboratory; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Ch. des Mines 9 Geneva CH-1202 Switzerland
                [5 ]Biophysics; Donders Institute for Brain; Cognition and Behaviour; Radboud University; Kapittelweg 29 Nijmegen 6525 EN The Netherlands
                [6 ]Biomedical Signals and Systems; MIRA Institute; University of Twente; Drienerlolaan 5 Enschede 7522 NB The Netherlands
                Article
                10.1002/adhm.201701164
                29349931
                702b3ae9-fcca-4c83-93da-833dfe39e7fc
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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