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      Reference intervals for cystatin C in pre- and full-term infants and children.

      Pediatric Nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
      Adolescent, Aging, blood, Child, Child, Preschool, Creatinine, Cystatin C, Cystatins, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Infant, Premature, Male, Nephelometry and Turbidimetry, Reference Values, Regression Analysis, Sex Factors, Statistics, Nonparametric

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          Cystatin C is a non-glycated, 13-kDa basic protein produced by all nucleated cells. Recent studies have indicated that the plasma concentration of cystatin C is a better marker for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than plasma creatinine, which is most commonly used for this purpose. We established reference values for plasma cystatin C in pre- or full-term infants and children. For comparison we also measured the creatinine concentration in the same samples. Cystatin C was measured by a commercially available immunoturbidimetric method with a Hitachi 704 analyzer in sera obtained from 58 pre-term infants, 50 full-term infants and 299 older children (132 girls, 167 boys, median age 4.17 years, range 8 days to 16 years). No sex differences were found. The pre-term infants had higher cystatin C concentrations (mean 1.88 mg/l, SD 0.36 mg/l) than the full-term (mean 1.70 mg/l, SD 0.26 mg/l, P=0.0145). The reference interval for pre-term infants calculated non-parametrically was 1.34-2.57 mg/l and for full-term infants 1.36-2.23 mg/l. The cystatin C concentration decreased rapidly after birth, and above 3 years of age did not depend on age. The reference interval for children 3-16 years of age calculated non-parametrically was 0.51-1.31 mg/l. Younger children (<1 year: 0.75-1.87 mg/l; 1-3 years: 0.68-1.60 mg/l) had slightly, but significantly, higher plasma cystatin C levels.

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