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      Adding up the numbers: COVID-19 in South Africa

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          Abstract

          SIGNIFICANCE: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has wreaked havoc globally, with over half a billion people infected and millions of lives lost. The pandemic has also interrupted every aspect of our lives, with most governments imposing various interventions and restrictions on people's movement and behaviour to minimise the impact of the virus and save lives. The debate among scholars on the effectiveness of the interventions and restrictions, particularly in the context of a developing country like South Africa, continues. The data and scientific evidence indicate that non-pharmaceutical interventions, and particularly the implementation and adherence thereto, may have been ineffective in terms of containment in the South African context and had minimal impact in stopping the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus

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          T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike cross-recognize Omicron

          The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) has multiple spike protein mutations 1,2 that contribute to viral escape from antibody neutralization 3–6 and reduce vaccine protection from infection 7,8 . The extent to which other components of the adaptive response such as T cells may still target Omicron and contribute to protection from severe outcomes is unknown. Here we assessed the ability of T cells to react to Omicron spike protein in participants who were vaccinated with Ad26.CoV2.S or BNT162b2, or unvaccinated convalescent COVID-19 patients (n = 70). Between 70% and 80% of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to spike was maintained across study groups. Moreover, the magnitude of Omicron cross-reactive T cells was similar for Beta (B.1.351) and Delta (B.1.617.2) variants, despite Omicron harbouring considerably more mutations. In patients who were hospitalized with Omicron infections (n = 19), there were comparable T cell responses to ancestral spike, nucleocapsid and membrane proteins to those in patients hospitalized in previous waves dominated by the ancestral, Beta or Delta variants (n = 49). Thus, despite extensive mutations and reduced susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies of Omicron, the majority of T cell responses induced by vaccination or infection cross-recognize the variant. It remains to be determined whether well-preserved T cell immunity to Omicron contributes to protection from severe COVID-19 and is linked to early clinical observations from South Africa and elsewhere 9–12 .
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            Effects of COVID-19 in South African health system and society: An explanatory study

            Background and aims The underestimation of the severity of COVID-19 by the South African government resulted in delayed action against the pandemic. Ever since WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic preventive action was comprehensively upgraded worldwide. This prompted South African authorities to implement physical distancing, self-isolation, closure of non-essential services, schools, travelling restrictions and recursive national lockdowns to mitigate the impact of COVID-19. This explanatory study sought to review the effects of COVID-19 in the South African health system and society. Methods The study applied literature research of COVID-19 reports, policies from the National Department of Health, WHO, Africa CDC, and articles from Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed. Results The South African health system is affected by the lack of PPEs, increased mortality rates, mental health problems, substance abuse, resurgent of NCDs. The closure of international borders, global demand meltdown, supply disruptions, dramatic scaling down of human and industrial activities during lockdown cause socio-economic problems. The prolonged effects of lockdown on psychosocial support services resulted in the outbursts of uncertainties, acute panic, fear, depression, obsessive behaviours, social unrests, stigmatization, anxiety, increased gender-based violence cases and discrimination in the distribution of relief food aid. Conclusion To slow down the spread of COVID-19, massive testing must be adopted, contact tracing, isolation, and home quarantine guidelines for asymptomatic cases which promote behavioural change and reviewing of policy on food relief.
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              Population Immunity and Covid-19 Severity with Omicron Variant in South Africa

              Background The B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified on November 25, 2021, in Gauteng province, South Africa. Data regarding the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in Gauteng before the fourth wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), in which the omicron variant was dominant, are needed. Methods We conducted a seroepidemiologic survey from October 22 to December 9, 2021, in Gauteng to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Households included in a previous seroepidemiologic survey (conducted from November 2020 to January 2021) were contacted; to account for changes in the survey population, there was a 10% increase in the households contacted, with the use of the same sampling framework. Dried-blood-spot samples were tested for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleocapsid protein with the use of quantitative assays. We also evaluated Covid-19 epidemiologic trends in Gauteng, including cases, hospitalizations, recorded deaths, and excess deaths from the start of the pandemic through January 12, 2022. Results Samples were obtained from 7010 participants, of whom 1319 (18.8%) had received a Covid-19 vaccine. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG ranged from 56.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.6 to 59.7) among children younger than 12 years of age to 79.7% (95% CI, 77.6 to 81.5) among adults older than 50 years of age. Vaccinated participants were more likely to be seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 than unvaccinated participants (93.1% vs. 68.4%). Epidemiologic data showed that the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection increased and subsequently declined more rapidly during the fourth wave than it had during the three previous waves. The incidence of infection was decoupled from the incidences of hospitalization, recorded death, and excess death during the fourth wave, as compared with the proportions seen during previous waves. Conclusions Widespread underlying SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was observed in Gauteng before the omicron-dominant wave of Covid-19. Epidemiologic data showed a decoupling of hospitalizations and deaths from infections while omicron was circulating. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                sajs
                South African Journal of Science
                S. Afr. j. sci.
                Academy of Science of South Africa (Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa )
                0038-2353
                1996-7489
                June 2022
                : 118
                : 5-6
                : 1-5
                Affiliations
                [01] Pretoria orgnameCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research orgdiv1Information and Cyber Security Centre South Africa
                [02] Johannesburg orgnameNational Institute for Theoretical and Computational Sciences South Africa
                Article
                S0038-23532022000300003 S0038-2353(22)11800500003
                10.17159/sajs.2022/13874
                703659c2-ad1c-49dd-9e40-a8a20224ae07

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 12, Pages: 5
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                SARS-CoV-2,non- pharmaceutical interventions,coronavirus testing,COVID-19,epidemiology

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