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      The Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition on the Urinary Excretion of NTproBNP in Male Volunteers

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          Aims: This study was designed to test if the renal excretion of the N-terminal prohormone of the B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) is modulated by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-I). Methods: Following 7 days on a sodium-enriched diet and an induction period of 4 days with incremental dosages of enalapril (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mg) or placebo, 10 healthy subjects underwent crossover and double-blind treatment with 20 mg enalapril sodium or placebo at 8:00 h. After 4 h (at 12:00 h), 20 ml·kg<sup>–1</sup> NaCl 0.9% was infused over 60 min. Hemodynamics were determined and blood and urine were sampled at 8:00, 12:00, 13:00, 14:00, 16:00, and 18:00 h. Angiotensin II (AII), NTproANP, and NTproBNP were determined by radio- and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Results: In the whole group, ACE-I led to a lower arterial blood pressure during the fourth day of induction and during the time from 8:00 to 16:00 h, a decrease in AII levels from 8:00 to 14:00 h (p < 0.05), and to a higher cumulative urine output (p < 0.05) in comparison with control. Neither cumulative sodium nor urinary NTproBNP/creatinine excretion were significantly increased after ACE-I. However, a subgroup of 6 volunteers – showing an increase in sodium excretion after ACE-I – also demonstrated lower AII levels at 13:00 h, a higher cumulative urine flow, and a higher urinary NTproBNP/creatinine excretion in comparison with control (all: p < 0.05). Conclusions: This suggests that the renal excretion of NTproBNP is modified by enalapril. However, it remains to be determined if this is a direct effect of ACE-I, the decrease in arterial blood pressure, or other potentially confounding variables like bradykinin or endopeptidase activity.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Comparison of the Biomedica NT-proBNP enzyme immunoassay and the Roche NT-proBNP chemiluminescence immunoassay: implications for the prediction of symptomatic and asymptomatic structural heart disease.

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            Diagnosis of heart failure using urinary natriuretic peptides.

            In the present study, we assessed the use of urinary natriuretic peptides [N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (N-ANP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)] in the diagnosis of heart failure. Thirty-four consecutive hospitalized heart failure patients (median age, 75.5 years; 14 female) were compared with 82 age- and gender-matched echocardiographically normal controls. All subjects provided plasma and urine specimens. Plasma was assayed for N-BNP, and urine was assayed for N-ANP, N-BNP and CNP. The diagnostic efficiency of peptides was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. All three urinary natriuretic peptides were significantly elevated in heart failure patients ( P <0.001). Urine N-BNP was correlated with plasma N-BNP ( r (s)=0.53, P <0.0005). Areas under the ROC curves for urinary N-ANP, N-BNP and CNP were 0.86, 0.93 and 0.70 and for plasma N-BNP was 0.96. Correcting urinary peptide levels using urine creatinine produced ROC areas of 0.89, 0.93 and 0.76 respectively. A urine N-BNP level cut-off point of 11.6 fmol/ml had a sensitivity and specificity for heart failure detection of 97% and 78% respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 64.7 and 98%. In conclusion, although all three natriuretic peptides were elevated in urine in heart failure, urinary N-BNP had diagnostic accuracy comparable with plasma N-BNP. Use of urinary N-BNP for heart failure diagnosis may be suitable for high-throughput screening, especially in subjects reluctant to provide blood samples.
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              Reactive hyperreninemia is a major determinant of plasma angiotensin II during ACE inhibition.

              The new ACE inhibitor trandolapril was administered to normal volunteers at daily doses of 0.5, 2, and 8 mg for 10 days. Twenty-one volunteers, aged 21-30 years, were included in the study. To randomly selected groups of seven subjects, each dose was administered in a single-blind fashion. None of the doses induced a consistent fall in blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE) was measured in vitro using three different synthetic substrates (i.e., Hip-Gly-Gly, Z-Phe-His-Leu, or angiotensin I). Although the degree of ACE inhibition assessed with the three methods varied widely, all methods clearly indicated dose-dependent ACE inhibition. These in vitro results were confirmed by measuring ACE inhibition in vivo using the ratio of plasma angiotensin II (ANG II) to blood angiotensin I (ANG I). The dose-dependent ACE inhibition was paralleled by a dose-dependent rise in active renin and blood angiotensin I levels, most evident on day 10. In contrast, plasma ANG II levels on day 10 were not different whether the volunteers received 0.5 or 8 mg trandolapril. Thus, whereas increasing doses of this new ACE inhibitor progressively enhanced the blockade of ACE activity, this was not reflected by additional reductions of plasma ANG II levels. The progressive enhancement of ACE inhibition seemed to be offset by the accentuation of the compensatory rise in renin and ANG I, which was still partially converted to ANG II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                22 December 2006
                : 29
                : 5
                : 294-305
                aDepartment of Anesthesiology and bInstitute of Physiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; cDepartment of Medical Biochemistry, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
                96352 Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:294–305
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 28, Pages: 12
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