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      The Influence of the Digital Divide on Face Preferences in El Salvador: People without Internet Access Prefer More Feminine Men, More Masculine Women, and Women with Higher Adiposity

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      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18–25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Social Implications of the Internet

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            Prototyping and transforming facial textures for perception research

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              Facial sexual dimorphism, developmental stability, and susceptibility to disease in men and women

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2014
                9 July 2014
                : 9
                : 7
                Affiliations
                School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom
                Brock University, Canada
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: CB DIP. Performed the experiments: CB. Analyzed the data: CB DIP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CB DIP. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: CB DIP.

                Article
                PONE-D-14-13432
                10.1371/journal.pone.0100966
                4089996
                25006801

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Funding
                CB received funding from the Russell Trust to support this research. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Psychology
                Perception
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Human Sexual Behavior
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                North America
                Central America
                El Salvador
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Research Design
                Survey Research
                Questionnaires
                Cross-Sectional Studies
                Social Sciences
                Custom metadata
                The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. Data can be accessed using the following link: http://perception.st-andrews.ac.uk/downloads/Batres_ElSalvador_Data.sav.

                Uncategorized

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