We found a novel protein in the postmitochondria supernatant fraction of rat liver, which is soluble in 5% perchloric acid and strongly inhibits protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. The protein extracted from the supernatant fraction with 5% perchloric acid was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and CM-Sephadex chromatography. The protein was shown to consist of two identical subunits with a molecular mass of 14 kDa. By immunoscreening with the rabbit antisera against the protein, a cDNA encoding the protein was cloned and sequenced. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 411 base pairs encoding a 136-amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 14,149 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence was completely identical with that constructed from all of the above peptides. Interestingly, the perchloric acid-soluble protein inhibited cell-free protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system in a different manner from RNase A. The protein is likely to inhibit an initiation stage of cell-free protein synthesis. Among the rat tissues tested, the protein was located only in liver and kidney. These findings are the first report on a new inhibitor that may be involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in those tissues.