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      Agomelatine Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Inflammation and Damage in Brain Endothelial Cells

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          Abstract

          Background and Purpose

          Neurotoxicity of anesthetics has been widely observed by clinicians. It is reported that inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathological process. In the present study, we aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of agomelatine against isoflurane-induced inflammation and damage to brain endothelial cells.

          Materials and Methods

          MTT assay was used to detect cell viability in order to determine the optimized concentration of agomelatine. The bEnd.3 brain endothelial cells were treated with 2% isoflurane in the presence or absence of agomelatine (5, 10 μM) for 24 h. LDH release was evaluated and the ROS levels were checked using DHE staining assay. The expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF, TF, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 were evaluated using real-time PCR and ELISA. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine the expression level of Egr-1.

          Results

          The decreased cell viability promoted LDH release and elevated ROS levels induced by isoflurane were significantly reversed by the introduction of agomelatine in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF, TF, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 were elevated by stimulation with isoflurane, which were significantly suppressed by the administration of agomelatine. The up-regulation of transcriptional factor Egr-1 induced by isoflurane was down-regulated by agomelatine.

          Conclusion

          Agomelatine might attenuate isoflurane-induced inflammation and damage via down-regulating Egr-1 in brain endothelial cells.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Resolving postoperative neuroinflammation and cognitive decline.

          Cognitive decline accompanies acute illness and surgery, especially in the elderly. Surgery engages the innate immune system that launches a systemic inflammatory response that, if unchecked, can cause multiple organ dysfunction. We sought to understand the mechanisms whereby the brain is targeted by the inflammatory response and how this can be resolved. C57BL/6J, Ccr2(RFP/+)Cx3cr1(GFP/+), Ikk(F/F) mice and LysM-Cre/Ikk(F/F) mice underwent stabilized tibial fracture operation under analgesia and general anesthesia. Separate cohorts of mice were tested for systemic and hippocampal inflammation, integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and cognition. The putative resolving effects of the cholinergic pathway on these postoperative responses were also studied. Peripheral surgery disrupts the BBB via release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), which facilitates the migration of macrophages into the hippocampus. Macrophage-specific deletion of Ikappa B kinase (IKK)β, a central coordinator of TNFα signaling through activation of nuclear factor (NF) κB, prevents BBB disruption and macrophage infiltration in the hippocampus following surgery. Activation of the α7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, an endogenous inflammation-resolving pathway, prevents TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, macrophage migration into the hippocampus, and cognitive decline following surgery. These data reveal the mechanisms for bidirectional communication between the brain and immune system following aseptic trauma. Pivotal molecular mechanisms can be targeted to prevent and/or resolve postoperative neuroinflammation and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.
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            Cognitive and behavioral outcomes after early exposure to anesthesia and surgery.

            Annually, millions of children are exposed to anesthetic agents that cause apoptotic neurodegeneration in immature animals. To explore the possible significance of these findings in children, we investigated the association between exposure to anesthesia and subsequent (1) learning disabilities (LDs), (2) receipt of an individualized education program for an emotional/behavior disorder (IEP-EBD), and (3) scores of group-administered achievement tests. This was a matched cohort study in which children (N = 8548) born between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1982, in Rochester, Minnesota, were the source of cases and controls. Those exposed to anesthesia (n = 350) before the age of 2 were matched to unexposed controls (n = 700) on the basis of known risk factors for LDs. Multivariable analysis adjusted for the burden of illness, and outcomes including LDs, receipt of an IEP-EBD, and the results of group-administered tests of cognition and achievement were outcomes. Exposure to multiple, but not single, anesthetic/surgery significantly increased the risk of developing LDs (hazard ratio: 2.12 [95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.54]), even when accounting for health status. A similar pattern was observed for decrements in group-administered tests of achievement and cognition. However, exposure did not affect the rate of children receiving an individualized education program. Repeated exposure to anesthesia and surgery before the age of 2 was a significant independent risk factor for the later development of LDs but not the need for educational interventions related to emotion/behavior. We cannot exclude the possibility that multiple exposures to anesthesia/surgery at an early age may adversely affect human neurodevelopment with lasting consequence.
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              Matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated occludin degradation and caveolin-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution contribute to blood-brain barrier damage in early ischemic stroke stage.

              Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs early enough to be within the thrombolytic time window, and this early ischemic BBB damage is closely associated with hemorrhagic transformation and thus emerging as a promising target for reducing the hemorrhagic complications of thrombolytic stroke therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying early ischemic BBB damage remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the early molecular events of ischemic BBB damage using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and in vivo rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. Exposure of bEND3 monolayer to OGD for 2 h significantly increased its permeability to FITC-labeled dextran and promoted the secretion of metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2/9) and cytosolic translocation of caveolin-1 (Cav-1). This same OGD treatment also led to rapid degradation of tight junction protein occludin and dissociation of claudin-5 from the cytoskeleton, which contributed to OGD-induced endothelial barrier disruption. Using selective MMP-2/9 inhibitor SB-3CT (2-[[(4-phenoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]methyl]-thiirane) or their neutralizing antibodies or Cav-1 siRNA, we found that MMP-2 was the major enzyme mediating OGD-induced occludin degradation, while Cav-1 was responsible for claudin-5 redistribution. The interaction between Cav-1 and claudin-5 was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Consistent with these in vitro findings, we observed fluorescence tracer extravasation, increased gelatinolytic activity, and elevated interstitial MMP-2 levels in ischemic subcortical tissue after 2 h MCAO. Moreover, occludin protein loss and claudin-5 redistribution were detected in ischemic cerebromicrovessels. These data indicate that cerebral ischemia initiates two rapid parallel processes, MMP-2-mediated occludin degradation and Cav-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution, to cause BBB disruption at early stroke stages relevant to acute thrombolysis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                18 December 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 5589-5598
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Clinic, The Affiliated Lianyungang Oriental Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Lianyungang Oriental Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University
                [3 ]Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Lianyungang Oriental Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University , Lianyungang, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yuliang Liu Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Lianyungang Oriental Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University , No. 57, Zhonghua West Road, Lianyungang, Jiangsu222042, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86-518-80683999 Email liuyuliang235@163.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                281582
                10.2147/DDDT.S281582
                7755371
                © 2020 Cheng et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 39, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

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