Neurotoxicity of anesthetics has been widely observed by clinicians. It is reported that inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathological process. In the present study, we aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of agomelatine against isoflurane-induced inflammation and damage to brain endothelial cells.
MTT assay was used to detect cell viability in order to determine the optimized concentration of agomelatine. The bEnd.3 brain endothelial cells were treated with 2% isoflurane in the presence or absence of agomelatine (5, 10 μM) for 24 h. LDH release was evaluated and the ROS levels were checked using DHE staining assay. The expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF, TF, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 were evaluated using real-time PCR and ELISA. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine the expression level of Egr-1.
The decreased cell viability promoted LDH release and elevated ROS levels induced by isoflurane were significantly reversed by the introduction of agomelatine in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF, TF, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 were elevated by stimulation with isoflurane, which were significantly suppressed by the administration of agomelatine. The up-regulation of transcriptional factor Egr-1 induced by isoflurane was down-regulated by agomelatine.