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      Biological and biomechanical evaluation of interface reaction at conical screw-type implants


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          Initial stability of the implant is, in effect, one of the fundamental criteria for obtaining long-term osseointegration. Achieving implant stability depends on the implant-bone relation, the surgical technique and on the microscopic and macroscopic morphology of the implant used. A newly designed parabolic screw-type dental implant system was tested in vivo for early stages of interface reaction at the implant surface.


          A total of 40 implants were placed into the cranial and caudal part of the tibia in eight male Göttinger minipigs. Resonance frequency measurements (RFM) were made on each implant at the time of fixture placement, 7 days and 28 days thereafter in all animals. Block biopsies were harvested 7 and 28 days (four animals each) following surgery. Biomechanical testing, removable torque tests (RTV), resonance frequency analysis; histological and histomorphometric analysis as well as ultrastructural investigations (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) were performed.


          Implant stability in respect to the measured RTV and RFM-levels were found to be high after 7 days of implants osseointegration and remained at this level during the experimented course. Additionally, RFM level demonstrated no alteration towards baseline levels during the osseointegration. No significant increase or decrease in the mean RFM (6029 Hz; 6256 Hz and 5885 Hz after 0-, 7- and 28 days) were observed. The removal torque values show after 7 and 28 days no significant difference. SEM analysis demonstrated a direct bone to implant contact over the whole implant surface. The bone-to-implant contact ratio increased from 35.8 ± 7.2% to 46.3 ± 17.7% over time (p = 0,146).


          The results of this study indicate primary stability of implants which osseointegrated with an intimate bone contact over the whole length of the implant.

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          Most cited references41

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          Osteoinduction, osteoconduction and osseointegration.

          Osteoinduction is the process by which osteogenesis is induced. It is a phenomenon regularly seen in any type of bone healing process. Osteoinduction implies the recruitment of immature cells and the stimulation of these cells to develop into preosteoblasts. In a bone healing situation such as a fracture, the majority of bone healing is dependent on osteoinduction. Osteoconduction means that bone grows on a surface. This phenomenon is regularly seen in the case of bone implants. Implant materials of low biocompatibility such as copper, silver and bone cement shows little or no osteoconduction. Osseointegration is the stable anchorage of an implant achieved by direct bone-to-implant contact. In craniofacial implantology, this mode of anchorage is the only one for which high success rates have been reported. Osseointegration is possible in other parts of the body, but its importance for the anchorage of major arthroplasties is under debate. Ingrowth of bone in a porous-coated prosthesis may or may not represent osseointegration.
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            Osseointegrated titanium implants. Requirements for ensuring a long-lasting, direct bone-to-implant anchorage in man.

            A total of 2895 threaded, cylindrical titanium implants have been inserted into the mandible or the maxilla and 124 similar implants have been installed in the tibial, temporal or iliac bones in man for various bone restorative procedures. The titanium screws were implanted without the use of cement, using a meticulous technique aiming at osseointegration--a direct contact between living bone and implant. Thirty-eight stable and integrated screws were removed for various reasons from 18 patients. The interface zone between bone and implant was investigated using X-rays, SEM, TEM and histology. The SEM study showed a very close spatial relationship between titanium and bone. The pattern of the anchorage of collagen filaments to titanium appeared to be similar to that of Sharpey's fibres to bone. No wear products were seen in the bone or soft tissues in spite of implant loading times up to 90 months. The soft tissues were also closely adhered to the titanium implant, thereby forming a biological seal, preventing microorganism infiltration along the implant. The implants in many cases had been allowed to permanently penetrate the gingiva and skin. This caused no adverse tissue effects. An intact bone-implant interface was analyzed by TEM, revealing a direct bone-to-implant interface contact also at the electron microscopic level, thereby suggesting the possibility of a direct chemical bonding between bone and titanium. It is concluded that the technique of osseointegration is a reliable type of cement-free bone anchorage for permanent prosthetic tissue substitutes. At present, this technique is being tried in clinical joint reconstruction. In order to achieve and to maintain such a direct contact between living bone and implant, threaded, unalloyed titanium screws of defined finish and geometry were inserted using a delicate surgical technique and were allowed to heal in situ, without loading, for a period of at least 3--4 months.
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              Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A histomorphometric study in miniature pigs.

              The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. Hollow-cylinder implants with six different surfaces were placed in the metaphyses of the tibia and femur in six miniature pigs. After 3 and 6 weeks, the implants with surrounding bone were removed and analyzed in undecalcified transverse sections. The histologic examination revealed direct bone-implant contact for all implants. However, the morphometric analyses demonstrated significant differences in the percentage of bone-implant contact, when measured in cancellous bone. Electropolished as well as the sandblasted and acid pickled (medium grit; HF/HNO3) implant surfaces had the lowest percentage of bone contact with mean values ranging between 20 and 25%. Sandblasted implants with a large grit and titanium plasma-sprayed implants demonstrated 30-40% mean bone contact. The highest extent of bone-implant interface was observed in sandblasted and acid attacked surfaces (large grit; HCl/H2SO4) with mean values of 50-60%, and hydroxylapatite (HA)-coated implants with 60-70%. However, the HA coating consistently revealed signs of resorption. It can be concluded that the extent of bone-implant interface is positively correlated with an increasing roughness of the implant surface.

                Author and article information

                Head Face Med
                Head & Face Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                21 February 2006
                : 2
                : 5
                [1 ]Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Münster, Waldeyerstraße 30, D-48129 Münster, Germany
                [2 ]Department for Cranio- and Maxillofacial Surgery, Heinrich-Heine-University, Moorenstr, 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
                Copyright © 2006 Büchter et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 20 November 2005
                : 21 February 2006



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