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      Place Cells, Grid Cells, and Memory

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          Abstract

          The hippocampal system is critical for storage and retrieval of declarative memories, including memories for locations and events that take place at those locations. Spatial memories place high demands on capacity. Memories must be distinct to be recalled without interference and encoding must be fast. Recent studies have indicated that hippocampal networks allow for fast storage of large quantities of uncorrelated spatial information. The aim of the this article is to review and discuss some of this work, taking as a starting point the discovery of multiple functionally specialized cell types of the hippocampal–entorhinal circuit, such as place, grid, and border cells. We will show that grid cells provide the hippocampus with a metric, as well as a putative mechanism for decorrelation of representations, that the formation of environment-specific place maps depends on mechanisms for long-term plasticity in the hippocampus, and that long-term spatiotemporal memory storage may depend on offline consolidation processes related to sharp-wave ripple activity in the hippocampus. The multitude of representations generated through interactions between a variety of functionally specialized cell types in the entorhinal–hippocampal circuit may be at the heart of the mechanism for declarative memory formation.

          Abstract

          Hippocampal networks allow for fast storage of large quantities of uncorrelated spatial information. Functionally specialized cell types (e.g., place cells and grid cells) may form the basis of this system.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol
          Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol
          cshperspect
          cshperspect
          Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
          Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
          1943-0264
          February 2015
          : 7
          : 2
          : a021808
          Affiliations
          Centre for Neural Computation, Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7489 Trondheim, Norway
          Author notes
          Article
          PMC4315928 PMC4315928 4315928 a021808
          10.1101/cshperspect.a021808
          4315928
          25646382
          7046b58c-e3eb-44d2-8ffb-dd7be8cabd4d
          Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved
          History
          Page count
          Pages: 15
          Categories
          104
          Perspectives
          Neurobiology

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