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      Central Role of the EGF Receptor in Neurometabolic Aging

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          Abstract

          A strong connection between neuronal and metabolic health has been revealed in recent years. It appears that both normal and pathophysiological aging, as well as neurodegenerative disorders, are all profoundly influenced by this “neurometabolic” interface, that is, communication between the brain and metabolic organs. An important aspect of this “neurometabolic” axis that needs to be investigated involves an elucidation of molecular factors that knit these two functional signaling domains, neuronal and metabolic, together. This paper attempts to identify and discuss a potential keystone signaling factor in this “neurometabolic” axis, that is, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The EGFR has been previously demonstrated to act as a signaling nexus for many ligand signaling modalities and cellular stressors, for example, radiation and oxidative radicals, linked to aging and degeneration. The EGFR is expressed in a wide variety of cells/tissues that pertain to the coordinated regulation of neurometabolic activity. EGFR signaling has been highlighted directly or indirectly in a spectrum of neurometabolic conditions, for example, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and cardiorespiratory function. Understanding the positioning of the EGFR within the neurometabolic domain will enhance our appreciation of the ability of this receptor system to underpin highly complex physiological paradigms such as aging and neurodegeneration.

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          EGF receptor transactivation by G-protein-coupled receptors requires metalloproteinase cleavage of proHB-EGF.

           N Prenzel,  E B Zwick,  H Daub (2015)
          Cross-communication between different signalling systems allows the integration of the great diversity of stimuli that a cell receives under varying physiological situations. The transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent signalling pathways upon stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are critical for the mitogenic activity of ligands such as lysophosphatidic acid, endothelin, thrombin, bombesin and carbachol, provides evidence for such an interconnected communication network. Here we show that EGFR transactivation upon GPCR stimulation involves proHB-EGF and a metalloproteinase activity that is rapidly induced upon GPCR-ligand interaction. We show that inhibition of proHB-EGF processing blocks GPCR-induced EGFR transactivation and downstream signals. The pathophysiological significance of this mechanism is demonstrated by inhibition of constitutive EGFR activity upon treatment of PC3 prostate carcinoma cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat. Together, our results establish a new mechanistic concept for cross-communication among different signalling systems.
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            The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: a randomized trial in young overweight women.

            The problems of adherence to energy restriction in humans are well known. To compare the feasibility and effectiveness of intermittent continuous energy (IER) with continuous energy restriction (CER) for weight loss, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic disease risk markers. Randomized comparison of a 25% energy restriction as IER (∼ 2710 kJ/day for 2 days/week) or CER (∼ 6276 kJ/day for 7 days/week) in 107 overweight or obese (mean (± s.d.) body mass index 30.6 (± 5.1) kg m(-2)) premenopausal women observed over a period of 6 months. Weight, anthropometry, biomarkers for breast cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and dementia risk; insulin resistance (HOMA), oxidative stress markers, leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF binding proteins 1 and 2, androgens, prolactin, inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein and sialic acid), lipids, blood pressure and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were assessed at baseline and after 1, 3 and 6 months. Last observation carried forward analysis showed that IER and CER are equally effective for weight loss: mean (95% confidence interval ) weight change for IER was -6.4 (-7.9 to -4.8) kg vs -5.6 (-6.9 to -4.4) kg for CER (P-value for difference between groups = 0.4). Both groups experienced comparable reductions in leptin, free androgen index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and increases in sex hormone binding globulin, IGF binding proteins 1 and 2. Reductions in fasting insulin and insulin resistance were modest in both groups, but greater with IER than with CER; difference between groups for fasting insulin was -1.2 (-1.4 to -1.0) μU ml(-1) and for insulin resistance was -1.2 (-1.5 to -1.0) μU mmol(-1) l(-1) (both P = 0.04). IER is as effective as CER with regard to weight loss, insulin sensitivity and other health biomarkers, and may be offered as an alternative equivalent to CER for weight loss and reducing disease risk.
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              Adipokines: the missing link between insulin resistance and obesity.

              White adipose tissue was believed to be just an energy-storage organ, but it is now recognized to be an active participant in energy homoeostasis and physiological functions such as immunity and inflammation. Macrophages are components of adipose tissue and actively participate in its activities. Adipose tissue is known to express and secrete a variety of products known as 'adipokines', including leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin, as well as cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. The release of adipokines by either adipocytes or adipose tissue-infiltrated macrophages leads to a chronic subinflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Endocrinol
                Int J Endocrinol
                IJE
                International Journal of Endocrinology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1687-8337
                1687-8345
                2012
                17 June 2012
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                1Receptor Pharmacology Unit, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
                2Metabolism Unit, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Huan Cai

                Article
                10.1155/2012/739428
                3382947
                22754566
                Copyright © 2012 Sana Siddiqui et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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