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      Inhibiting Long-Chain Fatty Acyl CoA Synthetase Does Not Increase Agonist-Induced Release of Arachidonate Metabolites from Human Endothelial Cells

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          Abstract

          Background: Triacsin C, a fatty acid analog, inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS) palmitoylation, increases nitric oxide synthesis and enhances methacholine-induced relaxation of vascular rings. The experiments presented here tested the hypothesis that triacsin C increases the synthesis of PGI<sub>2</sub> and/or endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Methods: Long-chain fatty acyl CoA synthetase activity (LCFACoAS), agonist-induced prostacyclin synthesis and agonist-induced release of radioactivity in endothelial cells labeled with [<sup>3</sup>H]arachidonic acid were measured in the presence and absence of triacsin C. Results: Inhibition by triacsin C of palmitoyl CoA formation was significantly greater than inhibition of arachidonoyl CoA formation in solubilized endothelial cell preparations. While 24-hour triacsin C treatment significantly reduced basal 6-keto synthesis, it had no effect on agonist-stimulated synthesis. The release of arachidonic acid metabolites was examined in [<sup>3</sup>H]arachidonate-labeled cells. Triacsin C treatment had no effect on basal or vasopressin-, angiotensin-II-, bradykinin- or ionomycin-induced release of radioactivity, but significantly reduced release in response to isoproterenol or phenylephrine. Expression of neither immunoreactive eNOS nor immunoreactive inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was changed by triacsin C treatment, but the fraction of immunoreactive eNOS in the cytoplasm of treated cells was significantly greater as compared to vehicle control cells. Phorbol myristoyl acetate or fenofibrate significantly increased in vitro LCFACoAS activity, and significantly decreased the nitrite/eNOS ratio. Conclusions: These data indicate that, while triacsin C can inhibit arachidonoyl CoA synthetase in endothelial cells, it does not increase the availability of endogenous substrate for basal or agonist-induced PGI<sub>2</sub> synthesis, nor does it enhance release of arachidonic acid or its metabolites.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms 1, 4, and 5 are present in different subcellular membranes in rat liver and can be inhibited independently.

          Inhibition studies have suggested that acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS, EC ) isoforms might regulate the use of acyl-CoAs by different metabolic pathways. In order to determine whether the subcellular locations differed for each of the three ACSs present in liver and whether these isoforms were regulated independently, non-cross-reacting peptide antibodies were raised against ACS1, ACS4, and ACS5. ACS1 was identified in endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM), and cytosol, but not in mitochondria. ACS4 was present primarily in MAM, and the 76-kDa ACS5 protein was located in mitochondrial membrane. Consistent with these locations, N-ethylmaleimide, an inhibitor of ACS4, inhibited ACS activity 47% in MAM and 28% in endoplasmic reticulum. Troglitazone, a second ACS4 inhibitor, inhibited ACS activity <10% in microsomes and mitochondria and 45% in MAM. Triacsin C, a competitive inhibitor of both ACS1 and ACS4, inhibited ACS activity similarly in endoplasmic reticulum, MAM, and mitochondria, suggesting that a hitherto unidentified triacsin-sensitive ACS is present in mitochondria. ACS1, ACS4, and ACS5 were regulated independently by fasting and re-feeding. Fasting rats for 48 h resulted in a decrease in ACS4 protein, and an increase in ACS5. Re-feeding normal chow or a high sucrose diet for 24 h after a 48-h fast increased both ACS1 and ACS4 protein expression 1.5-2.0-fold, consistent with inhibition studies. These results suggest that ACS1 and ACS4 may be linked to triacylglycerol synthesis. Taken together, the data suggest that acyl-CoAs may be functionally channeled to specific metabolic pathways through different ACS isoforms in unique subcellular locations.
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            Dissecting the Interaction between Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) and Caveolin

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              Expression and characterization of recombinant rat Acyl-CoA synthetases 1, 4, and 5. Selective inhibition by triacsin C and thiazolidinediones.

              Inhibition by triacsins and troglitazone of long chain fatty acid incorporation into cellular lipids suggests the existence of inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS, EC ) that are linked to specific metabolic pathways. In order to test this hypothesis, we cloned and purified rat ACS1, ACS4, and ACS5, the isoforms present in liver and fat cells, expressed the isoforms as ACS-Flag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli, and purified them by Flag affinity chromatography. The Flag epitope at the C terminus did not alter the kinetic properties of the enzyme. Purified ACS1-, 4-, and 5-Flag isoforms differed in their apparent K(m) values for ATP, thermolability, pH optima, requirement for Triton X-100, and sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide and phenylglyoxal. The ACS inhibitor triacsin C strongly inhibited ACS1 and ACS4, but not ACS5. The thiazolidinedione (TZD) insulin-sensitizing drugs and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone, strongly and specifically inhibited only ACS4, with an IC(50) of less than 1.5 microm. Troglitazone exhibited a mixed type inhibition of ACS4. alpha-Tocopherol, whose ring structure forms the non-TZD portion of troglitazone, did not inhibit ACS4, indicating that the thiazolidine-2,4-dione moiety is the critical component for inhibition. A non-TZD PPARgamma ligand, GW1929, which is 7-fold more potent than rosiglitazone, inhibited ACS1 and ACS4 poorly with an IC(50) of greater than 50 microm, more than 100-fold higher than was required for rosiglitazone, thereby demonstrating the specificity of TZD inhibition. Further, the PPARalpha ligands, clofibrate and GW4647, and various xenobiotic carboxylic acids known to be incorporated into complex lipids had no effect on ACS1, -4, or -5. These results, together with previous data showing that triacsin C and troglitazone strongly inhibit triacylglycerol synthesis compared with other metabolic pathways, suggest that ACS1 and ACS4 catalyze the synthesis of acyl-CoAs used for triacylglycerol synthesis and that lack of inhibition of a metabolic pathway by triacsin C does not prove lack of acyl-CoA involvement. The results further suggest the possibility that the insulin-sensitizing effects of the thiazolidinedione drugs might be achieved, in part, through direct interaction with ACS4 in a PPARgamma-independent manner.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2005
                August 2005
                29 July 2005
                : 42
                : 4
                : 275-283
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Amarillo, Tex., bDepartment of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Michael E. DeBakey Institute for Comparative Cardiovascular Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex., USA
                Article
                85847 J Vasc Res 2005;42:275–283
                10.1159/000085847
                15908751
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 35, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Paper

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